This research on
effect of employees’ commitment on organizational Performance was carried out
in Ambrose Alli University (AAU), Ekpoma, Edo state, Nigeria. The aim of the
study was to examine the factors that determine employee’s commitment to their
job, the study also aims at finding out the relationship between motivation and
employee’s commitment and the impact it has on job performance and
organizational Performance. In order to achieve the objectives, three
hypotheses were formulated and were tested using the chi square. The sample
population was drawn from a cross section of the university’s (AAU) staffs,
comprising both junior and senior academic staffs. The questionnaire was used
to elicit information, and these relevant data were collated and analyzed in
later part of the work. The findings from the study show that there is a significant relationship between
job satisfaction and employees commitment. The second hypothesis was tested
using the chi square, and the result showed that there is a significant
relationship between motivation of employees and their level of commitment to
work. Finally, the last hypothesis which sought to find relationship
between commitment and overall employee and organizational Performance was
confirmed. However, suggestions were made as to improving employee’s commitment
especially in tertiary institutions amongst which are: the need to improve on
workers salary, disciplining the staffs as way of ensuring sanity and effective
learning among the students and many others. These suggestions if strictly
adhered to will not only enhance learning, but as well raise the commitment of
staffs and consequently increasing Performance in the university.
In an era of
limited resources, governments at all levels are pressured to produce maximum
output with the least input. A great deal of attention has been given to a
variety of Performance improvement strategies, including public-private
partnership, and Balanced Score Card (BSC), in the hope that such strategies
are a starting point for Performance improvement. It should be noted, however,
that no Performance improvement strategy alone is perfect. As such, various
strategies should be used at the same time. Since Performance improvement is a
function of too many factors, ranging from top management support to feedback
on budget based decisions, it is essential to be aware that all factors are
equally important (Holzer & Callhan, 1998; Lee, 2000a).
Among others, the
backdrop of Performance improvement is an employee’s desire to be maximally
productive. As Guy (2002) points out, “it is the people who, in the long term,
control the Performance of any organization” (p.307). Even if there might be a
number of reinvention efforts and top management support, unless employees at
all levels are willing to improve Performance, all efforts toward Performance
enhancement will come to nothing.
Organization is concerned with the
analysis and diagnosis
of the factor
that determine organizational effectiveness, and
the planning and delivery of programmes to increase that effectiveness.
Organizations want to obtain the commitment of their employees. Management would
like its employees to
identify with the
values, norms and artefacts
of the organization, hence the need for organizational culture.
Management needs to explain and
imbibe its culture
in its employees; this will enable the employee to
get familiar with the organizational system.
During this process of
explanation, the employee
learns about the organizational culture
and decides whether
he can cope with
it or not. This means that each organization is a learning
environment. It is the proper understanding of the organizational culture that
the performance of the employee in the organization. Performance is the extent
to which an individual is carrying out assignment or task. It refers to the
degree of accomplishment of the task that makes up an employee’s job (Cascio,
Commitment has a
rational element: Most people consciously decide to make commitments, then they
thoughtfully plan and carry out the actions required to fulfill them (Meyer, et
al, 2004). Because commitments require an investment of time as well as mental
and emotional energy, most people make them with the expectation of
reciprocation. That is, people assume that in exchange for their commitment,
they will get something of value in return—such as favors, affection, gifts,
attention, goods, money and property. From this perspective, this paper sheds
light on the importance of a multidimensional view of employee commitment. This
paper starts with an assumption that the previous concept of organizational
commitment may not tell the whole story about individual performance and Performance.
Identifying multiple foci of employee commitment beyond the organization helps
explain various motivational bases among employees toward Performance
1.2 Statement of Problem
The problem of this study bore from the fact that there is
a wide discrepancy between employees’ efforts towards work and what he or she
receives or get in return for that effort. In the world of work, as
particularly in a university setting, employees and employers have
traditionally made a tacit agreement: In exchange for workers’ commitment,
university’s governing bodies would provide forms of value for employees, such
as secure jobs and fair compensation. But rather unfortunate, the employees
irrespective of their level or ranking in the university. As a result, workers
in the organization have embarked on series of protest in order protect their
work conditions and improve welfare package. Reciprocity affects the intensity
of a commitment. When an entity or individual to whom someone has made a
commitment fails to come through with the expected exchange, the commitment
erodes. This study therefore, looked into the effect of
employee’s commitment on organizational Performance, a case study of staffs of
the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
in view of the above problems that the following questions arise:
What is the level of employee commitment in relation to
job satisfaction in Ambrose Alli University?
improve employees’ commitment to work?
Does the level of employee’s commitment determine
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
objective of this study is to examine the effect of employee’s commitment on organizational Performance.
The study also aims at:
Determining the effect of employee commitment in relation to
Ascertaining whether motivation improve employees’
commitment to work, and
Ascertaining whether employee’s commitment determines
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
The following null
hypotheses will be tested in this study:
is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and employees’
is no significant relationship between motivation of employees and employees’
commitment to work
is no significant relationship between employee’s commitment and increased
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings from
this study will help to highlight those areas where there are problems among
staff and thus will be of great benefit to the authorities of higher
institutions and the policy makers. The results of this study would hopefully
be significant in the sense that it would enable both the Management of
universities to better understand how the various motivational factors could be
harnessed to inspire staff to increase and sustain Performance.
The findings from
this study would help to further highlight the likely problems of frustrations
and how motivation can be used to either reduce or eliminate these problems
amongst staff of the organization (Ambrose Alli University).
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is on effect of employee’s
commitment on organizational Performance. The study will also covers the
various techniques of employees commitment and theories of motivation as they
impact on employees Performance in an a organization. The study covers between 2010 and 2011.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
The study is limited to the employees’ commitment,
and its effect of organizational Performance. The study does not consider other
variables and as such is limited to only those areas specified above. Also, the
study only covers the academic environment which is further confined to the
Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma. It does not cover all sectors of the Nigerian educational
system; and as such the study does not look into how commitment strategies work
or influence Performance across other sectors of the Nigerian economy.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF STUDY
an orderly presentation of this study, this research essay has been divided
into four chapter. The first gives an introduction of the study, chapter two
focuses on literature review, chapter three is the presentation and analysis of
data generated for this study, and chapter four the summarizes the study and
gives useful recommendations.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Employees’ commitment can be defined as
both a willingness to persist in a course of action and reluctance to change
plans, often owing to a sense of obligation to stay the course.
Morale: Moral refers to staff emotional and
mental level of zeal.
Employees: Are the workers in an organization, working for the accomplishment of the
organizational goals. In this study, the employees are those staffs of the
organization, the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma including academic and non
It is the relationship between the amount of one or more inputs and the amount
of outputs from a clearly identified process. That is the outcome performance
of an organization or individual.
Motivation: These are factors (familiarity,
concern and driving force), which exist or are provided in a
work situation either physically or psychologically which
determine the input and Performance level of the worker.
Cascio, J.S. (2006) The
public-private distinction in organization theory: A critique and research
strategy. Academy of Management Review,
Guy, M.E. (2002). Managing people. In M. Holzer (Ed.),
Public Performance handbook
(pp.307-320). New York: Marcel Dekker.
Cohen, A. (2003). Multiple commitments in the
workplace: An integrative approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (2001). A three-component conceptualization of
organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1, 61-89
Meyer, J. P., Becker, T. E., & Vandenberghe, C.
(2004). Employee commitment and motivation: A conceptual analysis and
integrative model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 991-100.