Group performance in every organization
is very important, as it depicts the overall performance of the
organization. If various individuals in an organization cannot work as a
group, then the organization’s performance-both financial and
operational will never be maximized. Group efforts and team work is the
major ingredient in every successful organization, hence, the need to
make sure that the personality of every member in the group is okay for
group/organizational goals to be achieved. Without good personalities in
a group, there can never be a good group.
The researcher used Ghana
National Fire Service (Eastern Regional Office), as a case study to find
out the effects of personality on group performance, as well as
solutions to these negative effects.
Concerning methodology, data
used in compiling this research were gathered from both primary and
secondary sources. The management and employees of Ghana National
Service (Eastern Regional Office) were issued questionnaires. Text
Books, Magazines and News Papers on personalities, groups and individual
psychology were also used in compiling this research.
Based on the
findings revealed from the data analysis and interpretation, the
researcher came up with some suggestions and recommendations. The major
findings in this study include: the various personalities exhibited by
employees in a group, and there are: the openness personality,
conscientiousness personality, extraversion personality, and
agreeableness personality. The negative effects of personality on group
performance, which are: poor performance, delayed output, and incomplete
output. The research also went ahead to find ways to improve group
performance. These findings and recommendations, in view of the
researcher, will help improve group performance in various business
organizations in Ghana, if implemented by mangers of various business
The desire to build a sound conducive environment for an organization
is the desire of every loyal employee of an organization. Personalities
of employees can take an organization to greater heights, above its
competitors, and at the same way, bad personalities can bring down the
organization. Intelligence and emotional quotient which basically forms
an employee’s personality type must be balanced, for the employee to act
effectively and easily relate with his/her job, and other employees in a
cordial way. However, an employee will not be able to work in a
group/team if the employee does not posses a good personality. When this
occurs, group efforts and performance tends to fail, thereby reducing
the performance of the organization as a whole.
However, this research was undertaken to help enlighten organizations
of the various personality types employees in an organization might
posses, and to suggest ways in which an organization can increase
performance. Various personality issues, personality types and threats
and its effects on group performance are highlighted in this study.
1.1BACKGROUND OF STUDY
After a thorough research on the group performances of organizations
in Ghana, it became evident that individual personality and contribution
played a lot of role in the success or failure of the group, hence
needed much attention because; team work is the major ingredient for
increased and high performances in every organization.
The main reason for initiating this project is to research on the
various personality types and traits of employees in an organization in
Ghana, throw more light on the effects of these traits on group
performance, and proffer solutions as well as recommendations for
managers of various organizations in Ghana to deliberate upon and make
The study started with casual discussion among employers and
employees of various business organizations concerning their views on
group performances in organizations in Ghana and their expectations. It
later developed into a full research when the researcher developed more
interest in the topic, and decided to get more information from more
employees, government agencies, and other secondary documentations.
The Ghana National Fire Service was established by Act 537, (GNFS Act
of 1997) to give a broad objective and prevention and management of
undesired fires and other related matters. To achieve this objective,
the service is expected to perform the following functions:
· To organize public fire education programs.
· To create and sustain awareness of the hazards of fire.
· To heighten the role of the individual in the prevention of fires.
· To provide technical advice for building plans in respect
of machinery and structural layouts to facilitate escape from fire,
rescue operations and fire management.
· To inspect and offer technical advice on fire extinguishers.
· To co-ordinate and advice on the training of personnel in fire fighting departments institutions in the country.
· To train and organize fire volunteer squads at community level.
· To offer rescue and evacuation services to those trapped by fire or in other emergency situations, and
· To undertake any other function incidental to the objective of the service.
1.2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Based on previous studies conducted on personality and group
performance, it is clear that most group (especially homogeneous groups)
efforts fail in most organizations, due to individual personalities in
the group. Individual differences, inefficiency, and ineffectiveness
cause most group tasks to fail. A study conducted by Rutherford (2006)
indicates that for complex problem solving, groups made up of different
types of individuals with a variety of skills, knowledge, abilities and
perspectives are more effective than groups that are more homogeneous.
One of the reasons for creating a group is for individuals or
employees to showcase their skills and to contribute in the development
of an organization or to achieve the group’s goals. But some
individual’s personality affects or influences the effectiveness of the
group or team. Since various personalities are involved in a team it may
lead to lack of harmony and trust between individuals in the sense that
there will be the limitation of information because of the different
personalities that are involved.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main aim of this study is to examine various personality traits
of individuals in a group and its effects on group performance.Hence the
objectives of the study are outlined as follows:
1. To identify the various personality traits exhibited by employees in a group.
2. To identify the negative effects of personality traits on group performance in an organization.
3. To identify ways of improving group performance in an organization.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to achieve the objectives stated above, the following
research questions were used as a guide in achieving the objectives of
1. What are the various personality traits that are exhibited by employees in a group?
2. What are the negative effects of personality trait on group performance?
3. How can group performance be improved in an organization?
1.5SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The end product of this research shall be relevant to so many groups.
It will serve as a guide to employees who engage in group assignments
in various organizations such as the Ghana fire service. It shall also
be relevant to professional groups for research and academic purposes to
know more about the effect of personality on group or team performance
and to the general public.
1.6SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the research is limited to the analysis of the big five
personality trait proposed by Lewis Goldberg. This research is also
centered on Ghana National Fire Service, since its operations are mostly
executed in groups. The Eastern Regional Branch of the Ghana national
Fire Service was used as the major case study for this study.
1.7 TIME FRAME
This study lasted for five months before it was complete. The study lasted from August 2011 to December 2011.
The only limitation faced by the researcher in the course of carrying
out this study was the delay in getting data from the various
respondents. Most respondents were reluctant in filling questionnaires
administered to them due to their busy schedules and nature of their
work. The researcher found it difficult to collect responses from the
various respondents, and this almost hampered the success of this study.
1.9 CHAPTER SCHEME
Chapter one of this study includes the general introduction,
background information about the study, statement of the problem,
objectives of the study, research questions, scope of the study,
significance of the study, and the limitation of the study.
Chapter two reviews all relevant literatures relating to the study as
well as the researcher’s views concerning previous studies on
personality and group performance.
Chapter three includes the methodology applied in collecting and
analyzing data, population definition, study site, and limitations.
Chapter four presents the results of the study as well as data analyzed, and the interpretation of the analyzed data.
Chapter five includes a summary of the study, conclusion and recommendations based on the findings from the study.