EFFECT OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ABUA, ABUA/ODUAL LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

EFFECT OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ABUA, ABUA/ODUAL LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA


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EFFECT OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ABUA, ABUA/ODUAL LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS ON EFFECT OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ABUA, ABUA/ODUAL LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA


Family Size:

It is through the family that the child comes to make the very important identifications with social class, religion and ethnic group culture. Indeed the family influences the child’s self perception.

     Orhungur (2017), asserts that the family continues to exercises a strong influence on a person throughout his life. In Nigeria for instance, the family is the most significant group to which one is attached for his / her whole life. He adds that, the child’s success or failure in life often has their roots in the family, whether be it nuclear or extended family. In Nigeria, we believe very much in the extended family and the extended family is very much involved in the training or generally upbringing of the child.

      Eyake (2017) quoted hammelwelt who argued that educational aspiration is influenced by the family size. According to his findings, boys from small family size had better chance of gaining admission into grammar school than boys from larger families. Eyake (2017), shared the words of Thomson that family size affects the educational upbringing of the child. Adding that children from small families are more likely to adopt adult values and attitudes than those from large families, parents with fewer children tend to expect more from each child than to parents with many children. From the above, it may conclude that there is a correlation between family size and educational upbringing or performance. If the size of the family of the family is small, it is easier to control such a family and to manage the available resources. It may also be easier to pay close attention to each member of the family than the case with larger family size.

School environment:

        A student educational outcome and academic success is greatly influenced by the type of school that they attend. School factors includes school structure, composition and school climate. The school one attends is the institutional environment that sets the parameters of a students’ learning experience. Depending on the environment a school can either open or close the door that leads to academic achievements. Crosnoe, Johnson and Elder (2021) suggested that school sector (public or private) and class size are two important structural components of schools. Private school tends to have better finding and smaller class size than public school (Crosnoe et al 2021). The additional funding of private schools lead to better academic performance and more access to resources such as computers which have shown to enhance academic achievement (Crosnoe et al 2021, Eamon 2021). The relative social class of a student body also affects academic performance (Eamon, 2021). Students from low socio-economic background who attend poorly funded  schools do not perform as well as students from higher social classes (Eamon, 2021).

        Portes and Macleod (2017) carried out a similar research and found out that socio-economic variables continues to influence educational attainment even after conducting for different school types, the school context tends to affect the strength of the relationship between socio-economic status and educational outcomes.

        Buckingham (2020) was of the opinion that students from independent private schools are likely to achieve higher ends of school scores. While school related factors are important, there is again an indirect link to socio-economic status as private schools are more likely to have more students from high socio-economic status families, selected students with stronger academic abilities and have great financial resources.

Sparkes (2019) in his contribution stated that the school effect is also likely to operate through variation in the quality and attitudes of teachers.

Ruge (2018) was of the opinion that reaches at disadvantaged school for instance always does their job reluctantly and thereby compound low expectation of their students. Also related to poor performance is the level of truancy tends to be higher among students from low socio-economic background. Truancy even occasionally is associated with the poorer academic performance at school Sparkes 2019).

Students from non metropolitan areas are more likely to have lower educational outcomes in terms of academic performance and retention rates than those students from metropolitan areas (Cheers 2020). In essence, issues affecting education in regional areas includes cost, the availability of transport and level of family income support.

 

Peer influence:

        Peer group are important socialization agent. Participation in peer group activities is a primary stage development and adolescents’ identities are often closely associated with that of their peers (Santor et al (2020). Because peer groups area key point of the developmental process they can have a negaEkweree effect on young people due to peer pressure and peer conformity. Higher degrees of peer pressure, which is the pressure from others to participate in certain activities and peer conformity which is the degree to which and individual adopts actions that are sanctioned by their peer group have. Shown to increase the likely hood o risk taking behaviors’ such as substance abuse, and sexual acEkwereity (Santor et al, 2017). These risk-taking behaviors indirectly affect school performance in a negaEkweree way (Santor et al, 2017)

        Family background is key to a students’ life and outside of school is the most important influence on students learning and includes factors such as socio-economic status of the home, sale parents, household, divorce, paventing, practices, aspiration and material characteristics’, family size and neighborhood (Majoribank 2017).

        The environment at home is a primary socialization agent and influences a child’s interest in school and aspiration for the future.

        The socio-economic status of a child is most commonly determined by combining parents educational level, occupational status and income level (Jeynas 2017) studies have repeatedly found that socio-economic status affects students outcomes (Bharudin and Luster 2018, Jeynas 2017, Eamon 2021, Hochs child 2017 Mcneal 2021, Seafried 2018). Students who have low socio-economic status earn lower test scores and are more likely to drop out of school. Eamon 2021, Hochschild 2017). It is believed that low socio-economic status negaEkwereely affects academic performance because low socio-economic status prevent access to vital resources and creates additional stress at home (Eamon 2021, Majoribanks 2017, Jeynes 2017).

        Nwarike (2021) stated that because of poor socio-economic background of some families, their children prefer to drop out of school to become apprentices in the jobs they are not talented just to enable them earn a living. With these it is clear that the home has a lot not only on academy but also on the social economic and political life of that child.

Copel (2017) stated that generally children’s academic performance relates to their parents socio-economic status as measured inform of income, occupation and house hold possessions. To copel, the income and occupation of the parents has a relationship to the academic performance of their children. As occupation is based on educational attainment of the parents, it therefore entails that the educated parents holds better occupations in the society. According to him the household possession like radio, television, computer, telephone, well stuffed home libraries e.t.c, boost the child’s academic performance.

        Previous research has shown that children from single parents’ households do not perform well in school as children from two parent households Majoribanks 2017). There is several explanation responsible for this achievement gap like less income, lack of support which increases stress and conflict Majoribanks 2017). Lack of qualitaEkweree time with their children (Rich 2017). This reduces supervision of school work and maintaining appropriate level of discipline. Spackles (2019) argued that is more detrimental when children is sole families also experience a range of other risk factors such as low income.

        Divorce has also been found to negaEkwereely affect academic performance (Jeynes 2017). William (Jeynes 2017) found that students whose parents had divorced were among those who scored lowest on standardized test. Possible explanations for this relationship are that divorce can cause a family’s socio-economic status level to decrease and parental connections harmed (Jeynes 2017, Majoribanks 2017). Students from broken homes are often moshed by wrong peer group association, mental imbalance, exposed to risk, and they don’t have self esteem.

        Research shows that supporEkweree and attenEkweree parenting practices positively affect academic performance (Eamon, 2021). The effect of parental involvement their children’s school has an academic performance is less clear (Domina 2021). Parental involvement in their school has been linked to both posiEkweree and negaEkweree influences on academic performances (Domina. 2021, Mcneal 2021). Explanations for this discrepancy are not conclusive.

        High parents’ aspirations have been associated with increasing students’ interest in education (Majoribanks 2021). In most poor homes, where the parents are uneducated, their aspirations are normally not always in line with what the school up holds. It is unarguable that sum uneducated parents send their children to school just because people are sending their children to school while the educated parent know the reason and the value of education in the life of their children. Thus they know how to go about making them what they want them to be in future.

        Good and Brophy 2018 P.485). In their contribution on the issue of parents educational attainment and occupation as it affects the child’s academic performance state that parents who are well educated value education and expects their children to be well educated perhaps better than themselves. Educated parents aspire the peak for their children educationally.

        Materials characteristics are another key factor that affects academic performance Baharudin and Luster 2018, Eamon 2021, Majoribanks 2017). Mother’s who are more educated and have high self esteem children higher test scores (Baharudin and Luster 2018, Eamon 2021). Also mothers who delay child bearing have been shown to provide move “cogniEkwereely stimulating” and supporEkweree environment at home which has a posiEkweree effect on school performance (Eamon 2021).

        Smaller family size has been linked with higher academic performance or achievement (Eanon 2021, Majoribanks 2017). Students with fewer siblings are likely to receive more parental attention and have more access to resources than children form large families. The additional attention and support leads to better school performance.

 

 

         

 

 

 

2.3   Empirical Studies

To further explain how the influences of parents on the academic performance of their children, some researchers have mentioned some contributing forces that explain the differences in performance of students in the following ways:

Barry Jennifer (2021), in her study on the effects of socioeconomic status on students’ academic achievements in Asia. The researcher used four hypotheses for the study. Composite test scores of tenth grade students from the Educational Longitudinal of 2017 were examined using a four part model which includes a total of 180 students’ role performance, school, and family and peer factors. Ordinary least Squares analysis indicates that the strongest predictor of student test scores in socioeconomic status, resulting in a statistically significant increase in the standardized coefficient of 0.224 points. These results support previous research and possible directions for public policy were given.

       Ogunshola Femi and Adewale A, M (2018), who conducted statistical analysis on the relationship between home-based environment factors and the academic performance of students in selected secondary schools within a local government area in Kwara State was investigated. Samples were obtained with one hundred and eighty (180) students randomly selected from three secondary school. Diverse statistical tests were performed on the various data collected to establish statistical significance of the effects on students’ academic performance. Parental Socio-economic statuses and parental educational background did not have significance effect on the academic performance of the students. The two variables that indicated significant influence do reflect nature of the students’ home environment and played notable role in the academic achievement of the respondents. The recommendations made were that government could intervene to raise level of academic achievement among students in rural area.

       Akahomen, Dora, O, Emuhi, Justina O and Igun Sylvester Nosakhare, (2018), in a study conducted in their quest on the effects of Socio-economic background of parents on students’ academic performance in English Language. It is within this milieu that this study examines Socio-economic factors influencing students’ academic performance in Nigeria, with some explanations’ from Igueben local government area of Edo State. Senior secondary school year English promotion result was used. The population of the study was the entire secondary schools. A total population of 54 copies of questionnaire was administered to respondents. The study revealed that insufficient parental income, family type and lack of funding by government are factors influencing students’ academic performance. Based on these findings, certain recommendations were made towards improving students’ academic performance, prominent of these include proper funding of education by government, sensitization of parents towards their children education and the support of NGO’s to eradicate poverty.

        Olufemi Adewuyi (2019), carried out another study to examined family background and students’ academic performance in Lagos State secondary schools. The sample of the study consists of 280 students from ten randomly selected schools in Ikeja/Isolo /Osodi local government Area of Lagos State. This comprised 160 males and 120 females. A student questionnaire on Family background on students Academic Performance (FBOSAP) of 28 items divided into two sections which was developed by the researcher was used for the study. Five hypotheses were formulated for the study. The findings of this study confirmed the first four hypotheses while the fifth hypothesis was rejected because the findings did not confirm it. The data were analyzed on the basis of percentages and t-test. Although since all the hypotheses tested on family background and students academic performance; implications for counseling yielded a posiEkweree result, the following recommendations were made. That a larger sample that will cover both rural and urban areas should be used for further investigation.

      Mohammed Umaru, Mohammed L . Maina and Sule Amed Askira (2020), in their survey to investigate factors responsible for students’ dropout in Borno State secondary schools. Seven (7) research questions were formulated to guide the research. The subjects used for the study consist of one hundred (100) respondents. Random sampling techniques were used. The instruments used during this study were the questionnaire and past records, simple percentage score was used to analyze the data collected. Based on the analysis, the following findings revealed that home background factors, personality of the child and school environment were responsible for the dropout syndrome. On the basis of the findings the researcher recommended among others that subject specialist teachers, administrators and all those responsible for the curriculum at secondary school level should ensure that the curriculum contents are accurately presented and systematically taught to ensure easier assimilation of knowledge and intellectual trauma.

2.4 Summary

From the review of literature, ii is apparent that family background and educational performance of students’ have been seen from different perspecEkwerees. From socio-economic status of parents, it has been seen students from poorer background have worse educational attainments than parents who are well educated themselves generally value education and expect and desire students to become well educated perhaps better than themselves. Children of educated parents are naturally more intelligent than those of uniformed parents. Occupationally, parents who are unskilled workers take little interest in their children’s school work, have large families and infact lacks all that needed for child’s educational performances. Home situations, such as broken homes, malnutrition, and ideal environment e.t.c have far-reaching effects which tend to influence educational performance. It is also noted that family size has grossly effect on child’s educational performance. The larger the size of the family, the lower the child’s educational abilities. This is true because the larger, the greater the responsibility.

It is interesting that so much effort had earlier been done in other places, to investigate the effect of family background on the child’s educational performances.

        From the empirical review of the family background on students’ educational performance in school. It was understood that studies earlier carried out support the fact that family background has an adverse effect on the educational performance of students’ particularly when the background in a family is negaEkweree.

        This review will therefore encourage the researcher’s interest in the topic especially as it has provided working tools for the work. The review would therefore; serve as moEkwereation and guide to the researcher’s attempt in finding out the effect of the family background in the child’s educational performance particularly it affects our own local environment.

 

       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

3.1   Introduction

        This chapter deals with the research design, area of study, population, sample and samplings instrumentation, validation of instruments, method of data collection as well as method data analysis.

3.2   Research Design

        The research design adopted for this study was the survey method. According to Kerhinger in Agbe (2019) defines a research design as the planed structure and strategy of investigating conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions and control of variances are the basic tasks of a research design.

        Survey design required that data are typically collected through questionnaires, interview or observation of a particular time, from a sample for the purpose of describing the population represented by the sample of that particular point in time.

        Thus, the researcher used the survey design to ascertain whether the selected variables have any significant relationship on educational performance on students. By using this design, the researcher will sample from the population that can allow inferences from generalization to the total population.

3.3   Area of Study

        The area this research work was conducted in Abua, Abua/Odual Local Government Area. The study was on the effects of family background as it affects students’ performance in . Abua, Abua/Odual Local Government Area was created on the 13th of February 1976 from the former River Abia state and Akwa Ibom which had been part of Kwara state.

        The local government comprises of five districts. Namely: Mbayion, Mbatiav, Mbatierev, Yandev and Ipav with Abua town as the head quarters. Its geographical location is approximately latitude 7▫, 15▫ North and longitude 9▫ 00 East. The local government shares boundaries with four other local government areas. Tarka in the north, Buruku in the east, Ushongu in the south and Gwer in the West. It has an area of about 32.27km (source, dept of land and survey , Abua).

        The Local Government is occupied mostly by the Ekwere speaking people with a handful of immigrants from different ethnic groups. The people of the area are predominantly farmers with rich agricultural land which produce both annual crops as well as perennial crops respectively. Peasant farmers are also involved in small scale animals rearing such as poultry, goats, cattle and sheep. In Abua metropolitan, many of the inhabitants are civil servants while a greater number of them are traders. The local government area has a total number of 42 governments. Approved secondary schools most of who is science oriented and offer  as a science subject. 

3.4   Population

        The study population of the local government comprise of 42 secondary schools with a total number of 1,600 SSI  students. Hence, the study population involved senior secondary schools (SSI) students from five selected schools in the area. A total of 80 students were drawn from the list of the five schools, with 16 students from each school. The selected schools were chosen on the basis of their location (urban or rural), mixed or single sexed and whether they are boarding or day schools.

1.7      Sample and Sampling

The selection was done by stratified random sampling technique. First, the list of (SSI) students from the respecEkweree schools were obtained, and thereafter, numbers were assigned to the names. The required numbers of 16 students per school was then drawn from the list of each of the five schools. From these the required number of 80 students was obtained accordingly. This approach gave every student an equal opportunity of being used in the study.

        For the administration of test, out of the 80 students that filled the questionnaires, twenty questionnaires were selected from one school and used. They were divided into two groups on the basis of their parental background whether educated or wealthy or not wealthy. The schools selected for this work are listed below.

 

 

Sampled Schools.

1.          Government Secondary School Abua

2.          Bristow Secondary School Abua

3.          Abua High School Abua.

4.          St. John’s Day Secondary School Abua

5.          Federal Government Girls’ College Abua

3.6   Instrumentation

        For the purpose of this study, a research-questionaire was developed and used to obtain necessary information for the research work. Based on the number of questionnaire administered, the researcher collected the students’ last term results from their respecEkweree schools. The results collected was used to judge the students’ performance based on their family background.

        In addition, the researcher administered a test to some of the students being sampled to further strengthen the results from the schools. The questionnaire administered contained two parts that is part “A” which gave information about the students’ family background. And part “B” which also gave some information on how parents relate with children at home and their effect.

3.7   Validation of Instruments

        The instruments were constructed by the researcher and given to the supervisor of this project work and two other experts in science education for validation. This was to ensure the validity of the instruments as the removal of certain ambiguity that characterized the instruments.

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Family Size: It is through the family that the child comes to make the very important identifications with social class, religion and ethnic group culture. Indeed the family influences the child’s self perception. Orhungur (2017), asserts that the family continues to exercises a strong influence on a person throughout his life. In Nigeria for instance, the family is the most significant group to which one is attached for his / her whole life. He adds that, the child’s success or failure in life often has their roots in the family, whether be it nuclear or extended family. In Nigeria, we believe very much in the extended family and the extended family is very much involved in the training or generally upbringing of the child. Eyake (2017) quoted hammelwelt who argued that educational aspiration is influenced by the family size. According to his findings, boys from small family size had better chance of gaining admission into grammar school than boys from larger families. Eyake (2017), shared the words of Thomson that family size affects the educational upbringing of the child. Adding that children from small families are more likely to adopt adult values and attitudes than those from large families, parents with fewer children tend to expect more from each child than to parents with many children. From the above, it may conclude that there is a correlation between family size and educational upbringing or performance. If the size of the family of the family is small.. education project topics

EFFECT OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ABUA, ABUA/ODUAL LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

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