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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A WEB-BASED SYSTEM FOR WEATHER FORECASTING. (A CASE STUDY OF VICTOR ATTAH INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT)



ABSTRACT

The main objective of this research is to design and implementation a web based weather system for foresting weather for the aviation industry using Victor Attach Airport, Uyo – Akwa Ibom state as a case study. The project mainly focuses on the objectives as follows: To help the aviation industry meteorologists predict accurate weather forecast. To enable aviation industry to make decision on weather and control based on information given etc. This research work surveys the foundation and general confinements of weather forecasting which spurred me to go into the exploration work and challenges faced by the aviation industry with lot of flight cancelation due to bad weather. The language used in this research was HTML and CSS that gave the resultant effect of design and implementation of the weather forecasting package that will make forecasting of weather quicker, precise and reliable in our society.


CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION

Consistently, all over the world, a large number of weather – based economic decisions are made in transportation, agriculture, power, construction, and other sectors of the economy. Weather conditions influence the whole economy from various perspectives both straightforwardly and by implication, Better weather forests bring economic opportunities to almost every sector of the economy.

Weather forecasting is very critical to the business and private transportation sector, including aircraft, dispatching and trucking enterprises, nationally and globally.

In the transportation industry, Airlines for instance depend on weather forecasts in flying air planes and change flight routes.

 

1.1.    BACKGROUND  OF THE STUDY

The specialty of weather forecasting started with early human advancements utilizing reoccurring galactic and metrological occasions to assistance them with regular changes in the weather (MISTIC House, 2008) Around 650 BC the Babylonians attempted to foresee weather climate changes dependent on the presence of mists and optical wonders, for example, haloes. By 300B.C Chinese space experts had built up a schedule that separated the year into 24 celebrations, every celebration related with an alternate sort of climate. Around 340 B.C the Greek Philosopher Aristotle composed Metrological, a philosophical treatise that included hypotheses about the arrangement of downpour, mists, and hail, wind, thunder, helping, and sea tempests. Furthermore, subjects such as astronomy, geography and chemistry were also addressed into schools and science was addressed. Aristotle mentioned some surprisingly intense objective facts concerning the climate, alongside some significant errors.  Also, his four–volume content was considered by numerous individuals to be the authority of climate hypothesis for around 200 years. Aristotle''s cases were mistaken, it was not until about seventeenth century that a considerable lot of his thoughts were ousted. Consistently, endeavors have been made to create weather forecast dependent on climate change and individual perceptions.

Be that as it may, before the finish of the Renaissance, it had turned out to be progressively apparent that the hypotheses of the nature philosophers were inadequate and that greater knowledge were lacking and more prominent information of the important to facilitate our comprehension of the environment (Wilson,2007). So as to do these instruments were expected to gauge the properties. The atmosphere, such as moisture, temperature, and pressure. The primary known plan in western human advancement for a hygrometer an instrument to quantify the moistness of air was portrayed by Nicholas Cusa (C.1401 – 1464, German) in the mid fifteenth century. Galileo Galilsi (1564 – 1642, Italian) created an early thermometer in 1592 or presently, and Evangelista Torricelli (1608 – 1647, Italian imagined the gauge for estimating the atmospheric pressure in 1643. While these meteorological instruments were being refined during the seventeenth through nineteenth hundreds of years, other related observational hypothetical and the innovative advancements likewise added as far also contributed to our knowledge concerning the atmosphere, and people at dispersed areas started to make and record atmospheric estimations. The innovation of the broadcast and the development of transmit organizes in the mid nineteenth century permitted the standard transmission of climate perceptions to and from eyewitnesses and compilers. Utilizing these information, unrefined weather maps were drawn and surface breeze examples and tempest frameworks could be recognized and considered. Climate watching stations started showing up the whole way across the globe, in the end bringing forth the introduction of concise climate estimating, in light of the aggregation and investigation numerous perceptions taken all the while over a wide zone, during the 1860s. With the arrangement of territorial and worldwide metrological perception systems in the nineteenth and twentieth century, more information were getting to be accessible for perception based climate estimating. An incredible breakthrough in observing weather at high at elevations was made during the 1920s with the innovation of the radiosonde. Little light weight boxes furnished with climate instruments and a radio transmitter, radiosondes are conveyed high into the air by a hydrogen or helium – filled inflatable that rises to a height of around 30 kilometers before blasting (Gaffen, 2008). During the rising, these instruments transmit temperature dampness, and weight information (called soundings) back to ground station. The information are handled and made accessible for developing climate maps or addition into PC models for climate forecast. Today, radiosondes are propelled each twelve (12) hours from several ground stations everywhere throughout the world.

 

1.2.    STATEMENT  OF THE STUDY

The present strategy for weather determining in the Aviation business impeded by the following challenges.    

1.  Error issues in weather figures and forecast.

2.  Deferral from the headquarters (meteorological administrations Headquarters in Akwa Ibom) in anticipating weather conditions.

3.  The utilization of manual strategies in weather forecast and also in storing or keeping recordings of previous measurements of weather elements and its investigation.

 

 

 

 

 

1.3.    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The following objectives of this research are as follows:

    I.        To help aeronautics meteorologists issue exact weather estimations.

  II.        To empower aviation meteorologists to develop weather gauge with minimum delay.

III.        To enable Aviation industry to make decision on flight control based on data provided and avoid flight delay.

IV.        To study and utilize innovative programming language as logical tool for climate weather conditions.

  V.        To ensure powerful examination, structure usage and also provide solution to issues in the Aviation weather forecast.

 

1.4      SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the research is to design and implement a web based system, which will provide reliable and dependable service for forecasting climate conditions for Aviation industry (Victor Attah International Airport). 

The scope of this project is designed to extend the following range and deals with the management and computerization the following:

i.      The data entry section which facilitates easy entry of data obtained from measurements of various instruments.

ii.     The Database: the information entered is put away in an information base for record reason and furthermore for simple arranging of a specific record(s)

iii.    The Weather analysis: This analyses a given record of day by day climate estimations and furthermore allows the measurements of the information to be seen.

iv.    The Weather forecast: The effect of climate and its remarks is properly documented.

 

1.5      SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

The significance of this research is to design and implement a web based climate forecasting system for the Aviation industry (Victor Attah International, Airport) that would provide information concerning the climate conditions in real time, regularly and this provided data would be helpful for

i.            Aircraft landing and Take-off

ii.          Controlling Aircraft take-off delays

iii.        Reduce aircraft accidents and

iv.         Save life and properties.

v.           Decrease discomfort arising from altitudinal changes during flight.

1.6      LIMITATIONS OF  THE STUDY

Limitations encountered during the development of the research was the difficulty in getting useful information and relevant facts about the current procedure from the staff of the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET), Victor Attach International, Airport.

Also, the researcher encountered financial constraints, especially in transport fare to the area of study for the collection of data since it’s out of the capital city of the state and also the cost of getting information from relevant journals, printed materials and from the internet, etc.

Finally, lack of related materials and textbook to the study useful making citations. 

 

1.7      DEFINITIONS OF  TERMS

-       Beaufort scale: A scale that indicates the wind seed using the effect wind has on certain familiar objects.

-       Drizzle: A form of precipitation that consists   of water droplets less than 5mm.

-       Airport: An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to store and maintain aircraft, and a control.

-       Fog: water that has condensed closed to ground level, producing cloud of very small droplets that reduces visibility to less than one km (three thousand and three hundred feet).

-       Lightning: Any and all forms of visible electrical discharged produced by thunder storms.

-       Meteorology: The study of the phenomena of the atmosphere and all the processes that take place in the atmosphere and the relationships with processes at the surface of the earth.

-       Radiosonde: A balloon carrying instruments for measuring conditions in the upper atmosphere.

-       Rain: A   type of precipitation that is in the form of water droplets larger than 0.5mm.

-       Snow: Precipitation composed of white or   translucent ice crystals. Snow forms in cold clouds by the direct transfer of water vapor to ice

-       Taunderstorm (or thundershower) - A local storm, produced by a cumulonimbus cloud, and accompanied by thunder and lightning.

-       Weather: State of the atmosphere with respect to heat or cold wetness or dryness, clam or storm, clearness or cloudiness. Also weather is the meteorological day today variations of the atmosphere and their effects on life and human activity. It includes temperature, pressure, humidity clouds, wind, precipitation and fog.


DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A WEB-BASED SYSTEM FOR WEATHER FORECASTING. (A CASE STUDY OF VICTOR ATTAH INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT)


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