COMPARISM OF THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF AFRICAN CATFISHES AND THEIR HYBRID USING PLASTIC CONTAINER

COMPARISM OF THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF AFRICAN CATFISHES AND THEIR HYBRID USING PLASTIC CONTAINER


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COMPARISM OF THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF AFRICAN CATFISHES AND THEIR HYBRID USING PLASTIC CONTAINER

PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS ON COMPARISM OF THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF AFRICAN CATFISHES AND THEIR HYBRID USING PLASTIC CONTAINER


CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 

The demand for fish as an appreciable source of protein in the global nutrition is high but the supply of the product remained insufficient. This is because fishing in the world seas and oceans appears to reach a maximum productive level, whereas statistical analysis revealed a significant increase of human fish consumption yearly (Jamiu, et al., 2000). The target of Aquaculture industries is to produce a table size fish within a short period of time which can be achieved through choice of culture species, careful selection of brood-stock, availability of feed, stocking density, good water supply and good management system at the culture level.

Catfish production is a welcome practice in the history of Aquaculture. African catfishes mostly Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus longifilis species remained the most culturable species due to their good taste, fast growth rate, high stocking density and ability to adapt and survive adverse condition. (Hogendoorn, Fang, et al., 1986, Ayinla, et al., 1988; FAO, 2003; Jamiu, et al., 2004). Unfortunately, the successful story of aquaculture in Nigeria is being punctuated by high cost of imported fish feed such as Coppens. Udo et al., (2011) observed high cost of fish as a major problem to global aquaculture development, this account for 60% of total cost of production (Gabriel, et at., 2007).

It has been observed that Heteorbranchus longifilis unlike Clarias species, requires longer period to attain sexual maturity which is 1year and above for male and 11/2 year for female brood-stock. Considering economic situation of most farmers, ability and the willingness to culture the species for longer period to attain sexual maturity using commercial feeds like Coppens remained difficult. This initiated the idea of hybridization of the two species in order to achieve the product of highest disease resistant with fast growth and higher survival of the species but the growth comparism and survival of African catfishes and their hybrid using plastic container had not been reported which is the focus of this study.

 

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Culture of African catfish practice among fish farmers but unlike Clarias species, Heterobranchus production remained difficult mostly at the early stage of productions leading to insufficient supply of fingerlings for Farm stock. The idea of hybridization for production of species of higher disease resistant and fast growth and survival becomes a recent practice among fish breeders, Hybridare stelied which cannot be used for the generation of the species. Therefore, among pure line Heterobranchus, Clarias species and their corresponding hybrid the need to identify specie with the best growth performances and survival remained crucial.

Due to insufficient supply of fingerling of choice, farmers embraced any available seed of catfish without detecting the growth performance and survival within a specific period of time using the same feed product. Considering high cost fish feed, farmers who experienced poor growth of fish are discouraged. This is because there is no established fact guiding the production of commercial and production species of catfish.

 

AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study include:

To detect the best growth performance among African Catfish and their corresponding hybrid.

To detect the species with the highest survival culture under the same condition.

To enlighten fish farmer on the best species to be cultured for commercial and for production purposes. 

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The demand for fish as an appreciable source of protein in the global nutrition is high but the supply of the product remained insufficient. This is because fishing in the world seas and oceans appears to reach a maximum productive level, whereas statistical analysis revealed a significant increase of human fish consumption yearly (Jamiu, et al., 2000). The target of Aquaculture industries is to produce a table size fish within a short period of time which can be achieved through choice of culture species, careful selection of brood-stock, availability of feed, stocking density, good water supply and good management system at the culture level. Catfish production is a welcome practice in the history of Aquaculture. African catfishes mostly Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus longifilis species remained the most culturable species due to their good taste, fast growth rate, high stocking density and ability to adapt and survive adverse condition. (Hogendoorn, Fang, et al., 1986, Ayinla, et al., 1988; FAO, 2003; Jamiu, et al., 2004). Unfortunately, the successful story of aquaculture in Nigeria is being punctuated by high cost of imported fish feed such as Coppens. Udo et al., (2011) observed high cost of fish as a major problem to global aquaculture development, this account for 60% of total cost of production (Gabriel, et at., 2007). It has been observed that Heteorbranchus longifilis unlike Clarias species, requires longer period to attain sexual maturity which is 1year a.. agricultural extension project topics

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