EXTRACTION AND STUDY THE EFFECT OF HEAT ON CAFFEINE EXTRACTED FROM KOLANUT

EXTRACTION AND STUDY THE EFFECT OF HEAT ON CAFFEINE EXTRACTED FROM KOLANUT


2,660 marked this research material reliable.
Call or whatsapp: +2347063298784 or email: info@allprojectmaterials.com
Department: anatomy project topics | Type: Project Topics | Project Topics and Materials | List of Project Topics | Research Project Materials | Journals | Thesis | Articles | Online Project Materials | Business Plan | Final year project topic | Format: Ms Word and PDF | Attribute: Documentation Only | Pages: 135 Pages | Chapters: Complete Research work from Chapter 1 to 5; All chapters | Inclusive: Abstract, Preliminary Pages, Table of Contents and Appendices | Cost: ₦ 5,000.00


EXTRACTION AND STUDY THE EFFECT OF HEAT ON CAFFEINE EXTRACTED FROM KOLANUT

PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS ON EXTRACTION AND STUDY THE EFFECT OF HEAT ON CAFFEINE EXTRACTED FROM KOLANUT


ABSTRACT

 

Cola nut is a caffeine-containing nut of evergreen trees of the genus Cola, primarily of the species Cola acuminata and Cola nitida. It is one of the most common chewable nut in Nigeria. It is a central nervous system stimulant used in folk medicine as an aphrodisiac, an appetite suppressant, to treat migraine headache and indigestion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effects of Cola nitida extracts on the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and some biochemical parameters. Forty (40) adult Long Evans rats of both sexes, with average weight of 210-230grams were randomly divided into four groups: A (control) = four rats (administered normal feed and distilled water);B= caffeine fraction group containing three sub groups of four rats each, B1, B2 and B3 were administered with di-chloromethane caffeine fractionof 19.2, 38.4 and 57.6mg/kg body weight, respectively; C= aqueous extract group containing three sub groups of four rats each, C1, C2 and C3 and were administered cola nut aqueous extract orally at the concentration of 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg body weight respectively; D= cola nut supplement group containing three sub groups of four rats each, D1, D2 and D3 were administered 10%, 20% and 30% w/w cola nut supplemented feed, respectively. The administration lasted for a period of 21 days (3 weeks). Behavioural test for spatial learning and memory was carried out using Morris water maze and anxiety-like behaviours using Elevated Plus Maze. Blood was collected via cardiac puncture for determination of haematological indices, Brain tissues used for determination of oxidative stress parameters were homogenised in cold saline thoseused for histological studies were fixed in Bouin‟s fluid processed and stained using Haematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) and toluidine blue stains. The Morris water maze test showed a non-significant decrease (P˃0.05) in time to find the platform in all the treatment groups. A non- significant increase (P˃0.05) in the meantime spent in the open arm, number of entriesinto the open arm, rearing and number of head dips in the elevated plus maze test

vi


when compared with the control was observed. The result of the oxidative stress markers showedstatistical significant decrease insuperoxide dismutase (SOD) of the aqueous and caffeine fraction groups when compared with the control.No significant difference was observed with the other markers. The results of the haematological indices revealed a statistical significant increase(p˃0.05) anddecrease (P˃0.05) in lymphocytes and neutrophils counts respectively in the caffeine and aqueous extract groups. The histology results revealed neurodegenerative changes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the treated groups, which range from neuronal degeneration, pyknosis and clumping of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. It was concluded that ingestion of cola nut and its constituent by Long Evans rats caused no significant effect on learning and memory, decreased anxiety-like behaviours, anti-inflammatory effect by increasing lymphocytes and decreasing neutrophils level, non-antioxidant effect by significantly decreasing the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and neurodegenerative changes.

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0 Introduction

 

Plants have been an important source of medicine for thousands of years. The world health organization (WHO) estimated that 80% of people still rely on traditional remedies such as herbs for their medicines (WHO, 2000; Tripathi and Tripathi, 2003). Plants are also a source of modern medicines. It is estimated that approximately a quarter of processed drugs contain plant extracts or active ingredients obtained from or modelled on plant substances (Tripathi and Tripathi, 2003). Plant-derived substances have recently become of great interest due to their versatile applications. Medicinal plants are the richest resource of drugs of traditional system of medicine, modern medicines, food supplements, folk medicines, pharmaceutical intermediates and chemical entities for synthetic drugs (Ncube et al.,2008).

 

 

Medicinal plants were used by people from different cultures without the knowledge of their active ingredients. This is common practice which is laden with hazards as the extract may contain some toxic constituents (Lown, 1993).

 

 

Cola nitida commonly called cola nut in English, “Goro” in Hausa, “Obi” in Yoruba, “Oji” in Igbo, “Irevu” in Ebira and “Ebi” in Nupe is a genus of 125 species of trees native to tropical rainforest of Africa. Cola is one of the major tree crop grown in Nigeria today, and the tree on which it grows is believed among some Nigerian tribes to be the first tree on the earth(Lowor, 2010). It is a smooth fruit consisting two cotyledons of the family Sterculoideae. It is cultivated in the tropical West Africa. Some species are also cultivated for their nuts in Madagascar, Brazil, Jamaica and other humid tropics. The seed contains caffeine and is bitter. The first taste of Cola nitida is bitter, but it

 

1


sweetens upon chewing (Lovejoy et al., 1980). It isan important part of the traditional spiritual practice of culture and religion in West Africa, particularly in Nigeria.Cola nut has been reportedly used in folk medicine as an aphrodisiac, an appetite suppressant, to treat migraine headache and indigestion (Esimone et al., 2007).

 

 

1.1 Statement of Research Problem

 

Cola nitida has neurodegenerative effects on the cerebellum of Wistar rats(Buraimoh et al., 2014).

 

Memory and cognition enhancement procedure is not well understood in the field of neuroscience and due to high consumption of Cola nitida by Nigerians, especially students to increase alertness and probably memory, there is need to investigate and compile empirical evidence to either proof or disprove this belief.

 

Furthermore, considering the use of the fruit by people in West Africa, especially Nigeria, who believe that it has a divine power of curing some diseases, there is need to investigate the effects of Cola nitida on neurobehavioral activities and vital tissues of the body such as cerebrum and hippocampus at microscopic level.

 

 

1.2 Justification of the Study

 

Despite reported evidence of neurodegeneration that Cola nitida has on the cerebellum (Buraimoh et al., 2014), traditional, cultural and social use in our environment is still on the rise. Therefore, there is need to investigate further; the effect of Cola nitida on other parts of the nervous system, such as the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2


1.3 Significance of the Study

 

The study could be of great importance inidentifying and evaluating the regions of the brain that may be affected by Cola nitida, give insight to people, especially students on the effect of the plant on memory, cognition, anxiety-like behaviours and its relationship with biochemical parameters.

 

 

1.4 Aim and Objectives of the study

 

1.4.1 Aim of the Study

 

The aim of the study was to investigate the extraction and study the effect of heat on caffeine extracted from kolanut.

.

 

 

1.4.2 Objectives of the Study

 

The objectives of this study were to:

 

I.            Investigate the effect of Cola nitida on spatiallearningand memory, andanxiety-like behaviour using Morris water maze and elevated plus maze, respectively.

 

II.           Investigate the effect of Cola nitida on haematological indices (PCV, WBC, Hb, and differential cell counts) of Long Evans rats.

 

III.           Evaluate the comparative effect ofCola nitida on the oxidative stress markers(GSH, MDA, CAT and SOD) of the cerebrum of Long Evans rats.

 

IV.       Examine the effect of Cola nitida on the histology of cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Long Evans rats.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3


1.5 Research Hypothesis

 

Cola nitida has no effect on the histology of the cerebrum and hippocampus of adult Long Evans rats.

 

Cola nitida has effect on neurobehavioursof adult Long Evans rats.

 

 

 

 

1.6 Scope of the Study

 

This work would be limited to the effects of Cola nitida and its active ingredient caffeine on the histology of cerebral cortex and hippocampus, neurobehaviours, haematological indices and some biochemical parameters.

 

 

1.7 Limitations of the Study

 

Electron microscopy was not done to show the detailed structure of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus due to lack of electron microscope.

 

Neurotransmitters were not assayed due to lack of fund.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE WORK FOR EXTRACTION AND STUDY THE EFFECT OF HEAT ON CAFFEINE EXTRACTED FROM KOLANUT


Additional Information

  • The Project Material is available for download.
  • The Research material is delivered within 15-30 Minutes.
  • The Material is complete from Preliminary Pages to References.
  • Well Researched and Approved for supervision.
  • Click the download button below to get the complete project material.

Frequently Asked Questions

In-order to give you the best service available online, we have compiled frequently asked questions (FAQ) from our clients so as to answer them and make your visit much more interesting.

We are proudly Nigerians, and we are well aware of fraudulent activities that has been ongoing in the internet. To make it well known to our customers, we are geniune and duely registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission of the republic of Nigeria. Remember, Fraudulent sites can NEVER post bank accounts or contact address which contains personal information. Free chapter One is always given on the site to prove to you that we have the material. If you are unable to view the free chapter 1 send an email to info@researchcub.info with the subject head "FREE CHAPTER 1' plus the topic. You will get a free chapter 1 within an hour. You can also check out what our happy clients have to say.


Students are always advised to use our materials as guide. However, if you have a different case study, you may need to consult one of our professional writers to help you with that. Depending on similarity of the organization/industry you may modify if you wish.


We have professional writers in various disciplines. If you have a fresh topic, just click Hire a Writer or click here to fill the form and one of our writers will contact you shortly.


Yes it is a complete research project. We ensure that our client receives complete project materials which includes chapters 1-5, full references, questionnaires/secondary data, etc.


Depending on how fast your request is acknowledged by us, you will get the complete project material withing 15-30 minutes. However, on a very good day you can still get it within 5 minutes!

What Clients Say

Our Researchers are happy, see what they are saying. Share your own experience with the world.
Be polite and honest, as we seek to expand our business and reach more people. Thank you.

A Research proposal for extraction and study the effect of heat on caffeine extracted from kolanut:
Reviews: A Review on extraction and study the effect of heat on caffeine extracted from kolanut, extraction, study, effect project topics, researchcub.info, project topic, list of project topics, research project topics, journals, books, Academic writer.
The study could be of great importance inidentifying and evaluating the regions of the brain that may be affected by Cola nitida, give insight to people, especially students on the effect of the plant on memory, cognition, anxiety-like behaviours and its relationship with biochemical parameters. Despite reported evidence of neurodegeneration that Cola nitida has on the cerebellum (Buraimoh et al., 2014), traditional, cultural and social use in our environment is still on the rise. Therefore, there is need to investigate further; the effect of Cola nitida on other parts of the nervous system, such as the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Cola nut is a caffeine-containing nut of evergreen trees of the genus Cola, primarily of the species Cola acuminata and Cola nitida. It is one of the most common chewable nut in Nigeria. It is a central nervous system stimulant used in folk medicine as an aphrodisiac, an appetite suppressant, to treat migraine headache and indigestion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effects of Cola nitida extracts on the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and some biochemical parameters. Forty (40) adult Long Evans rats of both sexes, with average weight of 210-230grams were randomly divided into four groups: A (control) = four rats (administered normal feed and distilled water);B= caffeine fraction group containing three sub groups of four rats each, B1, B2 and B3 were administered with di-chloromethane caffeine fractionof 19.2, 38.4 an.. anatomy project topics

EXTRACTION AND STUDY THE EFFECT OF HEAT ON CAFFEINE EXTRACTED FROM KOLANUT

Project Information

Share Links

Download Post (MsWord)
Download Post (PDF)

Search for Project Topics

Project topics in Departments

How much does it cost to hire a writer in Nigeria?

Looking for Professional Approach and Quality Research Services ?

Estimating the cost of research writing in Nigeria: Freelance writers in Nigeria may charge anywhere from ₦5,000 to ₦50,000 or more per project, depending on the factors mentioned earlier. SEO-focused content may be on the higher end of this range due to the additional skills and research involved. For a more accurate estimate, it's recommended to reach out with us, discuss your specific requirements, and request a quote based on the scope of your project. Prices can vary, so getting personalized quotes will help you determine the cost more precisely.

Undergraduate Project Topics, economics project topics, marketing project topics, business administration project topics, engineering project topics, computer science project topics, banking & finance project topics, education project topics, law project topics, sciences project topics, public administration project topics, political science project topics, mathematics project topics, medical science project topics, mass communication project topics, research projects, geology project topics, marketing project topics, agriculture project topics, Browse Thousands of Final Year Project Topics, hire a writer, Research Works and Materials, Project topics and materials in Nigeria, Undergraduate Project Topics, Research Works and Materials, research topics, research project materials, complete project materials, computer science project material, free project topics, complete projects, accounting topics, small business topics, entrepreneurship topics, project materials, Nigerian undergraduate projects, business administration projects, computer science topics and projects, MBA Nigerian project topics, human resources, small businesses, entrepreneurship projects, economics projects, impacts projects, effect projects, university projects, polytechnic projects, investigate projects, political science projects, mass communication projects, project topics, human resource projects, education projects, French topics, project analysis, French projects, project tips, project abstract, project proposals, project bibliography, project reference, project seminar, forex, TSA, treasury single account, currency, naira, devaluation, undergraduate projects, final project research, marketing project topics, statistics project topics, mathematics project topics, statistics, mathematics, research projects, project thesis, labour force theses, NCE, OND, HND, BTECH, BSC, MBA, MSC, English projects, linguistic project topics, Free Project topics and materials in Nigeria, research topics, reseach project materials, computer science project material, free, complete, accounting topics, small business topics, materials, nigeria projects, business administration projects, computer science topics and projects, MBA nigeria project topics, human resources, small business, entrepreneurship projects, economics projects, impact projects, effects projects, training, budgets, ghana, university, polytechnic, browse Free project materials and topics in Nigeria, accounting and finance project materials, business administration project materials and topics, human resources, entrepreneurship, computer science and engineering project materials and topics, Accounting project topics, Accounting project topics and materials, Agricultural Economics Project Topics and Materials, Agricultural Science Projects topics and materials, All Project topics and materials, Architecture Project topics and materials, Aviation project topics and materials, Banking & Finance Projects topics and materials, Biology project and materials, Building project topics and materials, Business Administration & Management Projects topics and materials, Chemical Engineering Project Topics and materials, Civil Engineering Projects topics and materials, Communication & mass communication art project topics and materials, Computer Engineering Project Topics and materials, Computer Science Projects topics and materials, Criminology project topics and materials, Economics Research Projects topics and materials, Education Project Topics and Materials, Electrical Engineering Projects and materials, English Education & English Language Project topics and materials, Food Science project topics and materials, Geology Project Topics and materials, Guidance Counseling Project Topics and materials, History project topics and materials, Home Economics Project Topics and Materials, Human Resource Projects topics and Materials, Industrial Chemistry Projects topics and materials, Insurance Projects topics and materials, Law project topics and materials, Library and information science project topics and materials, Marine and Transport management project topics and materials, Marketing Projects topics and materials, Mathematics project topics and materials, Medical Sciences Project Topics and materials, Microbiology project topics and materials, Nursing and Midwifery project topics, Nursing and Midwifery project topics and materials, Optometry or nursing project topics and materials, Petroleum Engineering project topics and materials, Pharmacy project topics and materials, Philosophy project topics and materials, Photography project topics and materials, Physical and Health Education project topics and materials, Physiology project topics and materials, Political science project topics and materials, Project topics and materials, Psychology project topics and materials, Random project, Religious and Cultural Studies Project Topics and Materials, Sociology and Anthropology Project topics and materials, Sociology Project Topics and materials, Tourism project topics and materials, Vocational education project topics and materials. Project Topics: List of Project Topics | extraction and study the effect of heat on caffeine extracted from kolanut | extraction | study | effect Project Topics | researchcub.info