DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLAN


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DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLAN

PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS ON DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLAN


ABSTRACT

 

 

The study aimed at the design, construction and performance evaluation of a model domestic wastewater treatment plant was carried out. The treatment unit was a Waste Stabilization Pond (WSP) comprised of one facultative pond, three maturation ponds, and a contact filtration unit, all in series. The effluent of the WSP, after filtration through clay media, had the BOD reduced to 15.4mg/l, from 356mg/L indicating a 95.67% removal level. A Faecal Coliform (FC) count of the influent sample gave 1x108 FC/100ml,. whereas the effluent gave 9 FC/100ml, which was 99.99% FC removal. It was concluded that the effluent from the WSP is therefore suitable for discharge to the environment. It also met the requirement of 25mg/L BOD standard of Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA). A rice husk filter media was found to be non-promising earlier in the removal process. The treatment system can be recommended to private/public estates in order to have a more environmentally friendly discharge of domestic wastewater.

A study was conducted for the primary treatment and management of waste water generated in 5 STAR hostels and residential area and a waste water treatment plant was designed. The total waste water generated in one day was estimated 3.6ML considering the projected population hostels and residential for the next 30 years. The various components of primary waste water treatment plant viz. screening chamber, grit chamber, skimming tank, sedimentation tank, active sludge tank and sludge drying bed were designed considering the various standards and permissible limits of treated waste water. It was concluded from the study that in next 30 years the predicted population will be 23,000 and estimated waste water will be 3.6 MLD.

 

The receiving chamber of dimension 4m x 2m x 1.5m, the coarse screen of dimension 0.6m x 5.3m, Grit chamber of dimension 5.2m x 3m x 1.3m, Primary sedimentation tank with diameter of 7m and depth 2.5m, trickling filter of diameter 15.5m and depth 2m, aeration tank of dimensions15m x 8m x 4m and sludge dry bed of dimensions 12.5m x 8m will effectively treat the waste water at primary stage keeping the waste water quality within the permissible limits.

 

It was recommeneded that the treated water will be supplied for irrigating the crops on Research Farm and the remaining sludge after treatment will be used as manure on Farm. The use of treated water will reduce the ground water use and additionally the treated sludge will be very useful for increasing the fertility of soil.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

As urban and industrial development increases, the quantity of waste generated also increases. These wastes pose a serious threat to public health when they are not readily disposed off. When these wastes are removed by water carriage system, they are termed wastewater. Wastewater is the used water or liquid waste of a community, which includes human and household waste together with street washings. Industrial waste and such ground and storm water may be mixed with it. The use of domestic wastewater for irrigation is advantageous for many reasons including water conservation, ease of disposal, nutrient utilization, and avoidance of surface water pollution. Nevertheless, it must be borne in mind that although the soil is an excellent adsorbent for most soluble pollutants, domestic wastewater must be treated before it can be used for crop irrigation to prevent the risk to both public and the environment.

This study aimed at designing and constructing a model waste stabilization pond and final contact filtration unit, for the treatment of influent domestic wastewater for environmentally friendlier discharge.

More than two billion people worldwide lives in regions facing water scarcity. Water scarcity already affects every continent and more than 40 percent of the people on our planet. By 2025, 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity, and two-thirds of the world‟s population could be living under water stressed conditions. Global water use has been growing at more than twice the rate of population growth in the last century. About 1.1 billion people do not have access to adequate water to meet their most basic needs. Around 1.2 billion people, or almost one-fifth of the world‟s population, live in areas of physical water scarcity, and 500 million people are approaching this situation (FAO, 2003)

 

Agriculture is the number-one user of water worldwide, accounting for about 69% of all freshwater withdrawn from lakes, rivers and aquifers. The daily drinking water requirement per person is 2-4 liters, but it takes 2000 to 5000 liters of water to produce one person‟s daily food.

 

Nigeria‟s demand for water is growing at an alarming rate. Nigeria is surrounded by water bodies on the three sides, yet we face water shortage every year. The per capita water availability in Nigeria was 3450cu.m in 1951. By 2025 the annual per capita availability of water is expected to rise drastically from the current 1800cu.m per person to 1200 – 1500 cu.m. The quality of available water is also fast deteriorating, over extraction of ground water has led to salt water intrusion into coastal aquifer. It has also resulted into presence of excessive fluoride, iron, arsenic and salinity in water affecting about 44 million people in Nigeria. Groundwater is facing an equally serious threat from contamination by industrial effluent and fecal matter as well as pesticides and fertilizers from runoff. Unless priority is given quickly to creating an infrastructure to assure availability of water, there may be no water to meet agricultural, domestic and industrial needs of a population that has tripled in 50 years to one billion.

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ABSTRACT The study aimed at the design, construction and performance evaluation of a model domestic wastewater treatment plant was carried out. The treatment unit was a Waste Stabilization Pond (WSP) comprised of one facultative pond, three maturation ponds, and a contact filtration unit, all in series. The effluent of the WSP, after filtration through clay media, had the BOD reduced to 15.4mg/l, from 356mg/L indicating a 95.67% removal level. A Faecal Coliform (FC) count of the influent sample gave 1x108 FC/100ml,. whereas the effluent gave 9 FC/100ml, which was 99.99% FC removal. It was concluded that the effluent from the WSP is therefore suitable for discharge to the environment. It also met the requirement of 25mg/L BOD standard of Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA). A rice husk filter media was found to be non-promising earlier in the removal process. The treatment system can be recommended to private/public estates in order to have a more environmentally friendly discharge of domestic wastewater. A study was conducted for the primary treatment and management of waste water generated in 5 STAR hostels and residential area and a waste water treatment plant was designed. The total waste water generated in one day was estimated 3.6ML considering the projected population hostels and residential for the next 30 years. The various components of primary waste water treatment plant viz. screening chamber, grit chamber, skimming tank, sedimentation tank, active slu.. agricultural engineering project topics

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