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INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS AND ITS IMPLICATION ON LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA, THE CASE STUDY OF MOPA AMURO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KOGI STATE



ABSTRACT

The Nigeria state operates a federal system of government, which has three tiers of government namely, federal, state, and local government. There are constitutional provision which stipulated the responsibility and function of these tiers of government that should enable them promote development and efficacy of local administration. However recent happenings seem to indicate a lot of conflicts in relationship between and among these three tiers of government. This study seems to examine the extent of relationship and its implication on local government administration. The method of investigation adopted in this research include personal interviews of few relevant person, consultation and information drawn from event and happenings as observed by the researcher, the research also reviewed some existing literature on the subject. A major observation in this research is that the poor relationship between and among the three tiers of government has had a negative impact on the development of local government administration in Nigeria. Another finding shows that this same poor relations has not promote the cause of democracy in Nigeria. In view to demystify its causes and proffer solution.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

            

 

                                         TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE………………………………………………………………...............i

CERTIFICATION……………………………………………………………………….ii

DEDICATION…………………………………………………………………………..iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………………………………………………………………………..…iv

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………………v

TABLE OF CONTENT………………………………………………………………………………vi 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0          INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………….........1

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY……………………………………………………………1

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM………………………………………………………………….4

1.3      AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY………………………………………….………..5

1.4      SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY…………………………………………………………….6

1.5      SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY……………………………………………..7

1.6      DEFINITION OF TERMS ……………………………………………………………………..8

1.7      ORGANIZATION OF WORK ……………………………………………………………….10

REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………………….11

 

                      CHAPTER TWO

2.1       LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………………………12

2.2       MEANING OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT…………………………………………….20

2.2.1    THEORETICAL FRAME WORK………………………………….…………………...26

2.3       HISTORY OF MOPAMURO LOCAL GOVERNMENT………………………….30

REFEREENCES……………………………………………………………………..33

                 CHAPTER THREE

3.1      RESEARCH METHODS…………………………………………………………………………..35

3.2      RESEARCH DESIGN……………………………………………………………………………….36

3.3      POPULATION OF THE STUDY………………………………………………………………..36

3.4      SAMPLE FRAME……………………………………………………………………………………37

3.5      SAMPLING TECHNIGUES………………………………………………………………………37

3.6       METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS………………………………………………………………39

            REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………………………40

                CHAPTER FOUR

4.0      DATA PRESENTATIO  AND ANALYSIS…………………………………………………….41

4.1      DATA PRESENTATION…………………………………………………………………………..41

4.2       DATA ANALYSIS…………………………………………………………………………………..46

4.3       FUNCTIONS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT…………………………………………………..49

4.4       STATE GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT …………….52

            REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………………...57

                  CHAPTER FIVE

5.1       SUMMARY…………………………………………………………………………………………….58 

                                               

5.2     RECOMMENDATION………………………………………………………………………………59

5.3      CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………………………..60

         Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………………..62

 

 

     

 

 

 

 

 

          

 

                                      CHAPTER ONE

                                                INTRODUCTION 

1.1        BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

             The concept of inter-governmental relations have become so important in the operations of government in Nigeria, they are so important that they have become institutionalized in government operation. Intergovernmental relations have been seen as a system of transaction among structured levels of government.

      Experience has shown that government objective in a country with a federal system of government can achieve better relationship among the various levels of government (federal, state, local government) than under condition where no such relationship exist. Inter-governmental relations offer more opportunity, and thus, permit the three tiers of government to complement the effort of one another in the running affairs of the Nigerian government.

        Federalism under military regime tends to impose a centralized control over the state and local government and thus distorts inter-governmental relations.

       A  notable feature 0f federalism is the devolution and division of power and responsibility among the levels of government, theoretically forbids any levels of government from usurping the power of others, yet it provides wide arena for cooperation and opportunity for expanding joint actions. It therefore follows that the maintenance of effective intergovernmental relations and cooperation is of important for the function of the federal system of government, not only in Nigeria but in any part of the world such as Canada, USA, and Germany and Australia etc.

              The goals of inter-governmental relations are said to be to promote peace and harmony among the three tiers of government, to accelerate the self-reliant economy. In so doing, inter-governmental relations will help to minimized inter-jurisdictional conflict among the various levels of government. Also to boost, natural and socio-economic integrations through the activities of the three levels of government.  Again to enhance the emergence of cooperative rather than competitive federation, there is also need to enhance effective and efficient utilization of human and material resources among the three levels of government, to help solve the problem of rural urban poverty, to look into the situation where state, local government or unit of the federal set up, have a responsibility with no resources base to perform them.(John Nwafor : unpublished work)

    Therefore, inter-governmental relations can be vertical or horizontal. Vertical relations take place when the central government interacts with the state or when the state interacts with the localities. Horizontal relations take place when government at the same level in the political structure interacts. For example, inter- state or inter localities interactions. Consequently, there are at least two levels of intergovernmental relations in a unitary state. These are National-Local relations and inter-local relations. By the same token, there are six levels of intergovernmental relations in a federation like Nigeria. These are National-State-Local relations, National- State relations, National-Local relation, inter –state relations, State-Local relations, and inter-Local relations. Presently, in Nigeria it is possible to delineate these six levels of intergovernmental relations.

      To this, there should be greater independence of the state and local government in the federal government for their survival and performance of fundamental responsibilities. There should  also be several reforms that will recognized  the local government as the third tires of government with relative autonomy  and jurisdictional powers as provided for, in the constitutions.

       Another problem is the state of the nation’s economy. The nation’s economy really influences the nature and scope of intergovernmental relations in the local government in Nigeria. The wealth of any nation is a key factor determining its pattern of material relation. Between 1960 and 1970, the basis of fiscal relations between the Federal, State and Local government were richer and more powerful than the local government. But this problem will come to an end if the local government has greater control of the tax revenue.

    The local government should control 50% of the tax revenue allocation of their area without the Federal or State interference. They should also receive grants and aids from outside and within the country, making them powerful and independent of their own.

     Their Federal allocation account should be granted to them annually or monthly

as the case may be. They should be allowed to run their affairs especially when it comes to monetary matters. ( Okoli and Onah,2002).

         In so doing, channel of communication should be at his high level between the Federal, State and local government in order to produce an effective result which intergovernmental relations is designed to achieve within the federal structure.

1.2   STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

     This research is aim at examining the problems of inter-governmental relations and its implications on local government in Nigeria.

   In Nigeria, the issues of sharing resources among the three levels of government have remained controversial, due to lack of acceptable formular. This has resulted in setting up of different committee or commissions to prescribe the formula to be used. Also there exists a conflict between the Federal, State and local government over acceptable formula for sharing revenue.  For instance, the conflict is usually whether the principle of derivation, need, national interest or land mass should be used as a basis for the purpose. Even when these principles may be generally accepted as the main basis for working out revenue allocation formula, conflict might arise following as to which of the principle takes precedence over others as the main criteria for sharing the revenue. Against this background the following research question were raised.

i.                      What are the reasons for inter-governmental relations conflict in Nigeria?

ii.                 To what extent has this conflict affect the operation of inter-governmental relation?

iii.              What is the level of autonomy granted to the local government?

iv.              How can the Nigerian consolidate inter-governmental relations among levels of government?

v.                 How does an inter-governmental relation promote people’s participation in government?

 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

       This study is set out to examine the impact of intergovernmental relations on local government administration in Nigeria with particular reference to state-local government relations. It will attempt to look at how far, the state government involvement in local government policy making affect the political, financial and social relationship which exist between state and local government in Nigeria.

          In general term, the study seeks to understand the nature, dynamics and consequences of inter-governmental relations in Nigeria. In specific term, the objectives are:

(i)                  To examine the causes of inter-governmental relations in Nigeria

(ii)                To know the inefficiencies cause by the bad relationship between the levels of government.

(iii)             To ascertain the level of autonomy or control exercise by federal/state over the operations of the local government.

(iv)             To expose the danger or effect of external control or interference in the operation of one government over another.

(v)                To facilitate and promote political participation through political communication via the local government.

1.4   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

              This study will be of great benefit by gaining in-depth knowledge of state-local relations in Nigeria. This is because it will be exposed to the challenges it is facing in inter-governmental relations.

        It would also be of great significance to researchers by way of making them aware of problems that have been uncovered by these researchers, so that they would know where to start from in their subsequent research work in the area of intergovernmental relations in Nigeria.

           It would also be useful to university students like kogi state university when doing a likely research. The study would also be a likely literature to be referred to by the policy makers and policy implementers, as they will make use of the findings and recommendation of this research exercise. And it is believed that this study will open an avenue for further research.

1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY    

        This study is set to examine the impact of intergovernmental relations in Nigeria but due to its broad nature and the need for clarity of analysis, this study has been narrowed down to Kogi state, particularly (mopamuro Local government). On the other hand, this study is also limited due to lack of time, finance, transport and other logistical constrains that might have aided this study on globalization.  

       Choosing the right local government for case study, it was not easy to get the right local government that could give out accurate and detail information needed by the researcher.

1.6 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERM

          In the course of this research work, some concepts were used and for easy and comprehensive understanding of the entire work, these concepts shall be explained.

     LOCAL GOVERNMENT

        This is the third tier of government within the state and it is also a government established at the local level through the Act of parliament to deal with specific matters as it affects the local people.

       Local government can also be termed to mean the breakdown of a country into small units or localities for the purpose of administration. It serves the dual mandate of being the foundation which the state and the federal government touch the lives of the people intimately.

CENTRAL GOVERNMENT

    This is not only the first but the mega-government which exercise exclusive powers and it’s superior to both the state and local governments.

GOVERNMENT

      This is the agency of the ruling class which is charged with the responsibility of exercising the state power on behalf of the people.

FEDERALISM

       K.C Wheare in his book title “federal government”, defines federal principles as a way of sharing power between the central and the regional government in such a way that both government are independent and coordinated. He posited that in a federal system no level of government is subordinate to the other; otherwise it becomes a unitary system.

     Federalism can also be defines as the devolution or the sharing of power between the federal and the component units (state/local government).

DEVELOPMENT

     It is the qualitative and qualities, self-improvement of man that applies to whole societies and people. It means the removal of obstacle to the progressive or qualitative transformation of man and such obstacle include hunger, poverty, ignorance, disease, mal-nutrition, unemployment, to mention but a few.

ADMINISTRATION

    Administration is that part of management which is concerned with the installation and carrying out of the procedures by which the programmed of the organization is laid down and communicated to the sub-system within the organization and the progress of the activities are regulated and checked against the plan”(Brech,1957). It is also that aspect of management concerned with the interpretation of policy and the implementation of the procedures to effect it.

  INTER-GOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS

      Inter-governmental relations referred to the interaction and activities that takes place among the different units or levels of government within a state.

1.7    ORGANIZATION OF WORK

    This research is divided into five (5) chapters as follows:

     Chapter (1) is the introduction and it include background of the study, statement of problems, objectives, significance, research question, scope/limitation, conceptual clarification and chapterization/organization of study. Chapter (2) deals with literature review about scholar’s perception on inter-governmental relations. Chapter (3) deals with research methodology, research design, types of research and data analysis. Chapter (4) deals with data presentation, data analysis and testing of hypothesis. Chapter (5) which is the last chapter of the research work deals summery, recommendation and conclusion.

   

 

 

                                  REFERENCES

Wheare , K.C. (1963): Federal Government, London: oxford University 

                   press,p14-20.

Nwokedi. Ralph Chiemeka(2002). Power Sharing in Nigerian Federation.

                  Enugu :Snaap Press.

  Ugwu, Samuel Chijioke (1998).Federal System; The Nigerian Experience.

                 Enugu:Mary Dan Publishers.

  Okoli, F,C and Fab.O.(2002).Public Administration in Nigeria: Nature,

                 Principles and Application. Enugu: John Jacobs Classic

                 Publishers limited.

   Elaigwu,  J. Isawa (2007)Fiscal federalism in Nigeria; facing the

                  challenges of the future. Jos: Aha publishing house.


INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS AND ITS IMPLICATION ON LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA, THE CASE STUDY OF MOPA AMURO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KOGI STATE


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