Title Page - - - - - - - - - i
Approval Page - - - - - - - - ii
Declaration - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of Contents - - - - - - - vii
ONE – INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - -
1.2 Statement of General Problem - - - -
1.3 Objective of the Study - - - - - -
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - -
1.5 Significance of the Study - - - - -
1.6 Scope of the Study - - - - - -
1.7 Definition of Terms - - - - - -
TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Literature Review - - - - - - - - -
2.2 Theoretical frame work- - - - - - - -
2.3 Summary- - - - - - - - - - -
THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
3.2 Research Design - - - - - - - -
3.3 Area of the Study - - - - - - - -
3.4 Population of Study - - - - - - - -
3.5 Sample size and Sampling Techniques - - - - -
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection - - - - - -
3.7 Validity of the Instrument - - - - - - -
3.8 Reliability of the Instrument - - - - - -
3.9 Method of Data Collection - - - - - - -
3.10 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - -
FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - - - -
4.2 Characteristics of the Respondents - - - - -
Analysis - - - - - - - - -
4.4 Testing Hypothesis - - - - - - - -
of Findings - - - - - - - -
4.6 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - -
FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - - -
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - -
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - -
Appendix - - - - - - - - - -
In recent times some school of thought believes that
traditional media of mass communication has continue to loss its large audience
to the current arrival of the conventional media. This is as a result of the
immediate satisfaction derived from the new media.
The traditional media like the television which combines
both sound, visual and audio which was seen as one of the best medium of
communication has faced a lot of setback. This innovation can be attributed to
the arrival of smart phones which solves the problem of delayed feedback in the
However, the Federal Polytechnic Bida student like their
counterpart in any higher institution in the world have been diverting from
television to the internet using smart phones like ipad, blackberry, tablet
etc. to get aware or make a decision on the product they go for.
Today, electronic media play a crucial role in all the
domains of life and has therefore become highly significant. All businesses
need efficient marketing in order to increase their sales. The traditional ways
of trade and commerce were largely dependent upon the system of transportation
and slow means of communication. Electronic media has therefore accelerated
trade which have brought about electronic development and has lowered
The rationale behind any adverting placed through the
various forms of electronic is to cause action and get the required feedback
from the prospective customers.
The kind of feedback an advertise receives depends
largely on the perception of its target audience.
According to Sternberg Kalat (2005) “Perception is the
set of cognitive processes through which we interpret the messages our senses
Our perception generally synthesizes sensations and
assign meaning to them by taking into account our expectations, our prior
experiences and sometimes our culture.
The conventional media like Facebook, twitter is changing
the way we receive our messages. The recent boom of twitter is showing it’s the
new methods of receiving information or advertising as marketers as well as
private organization tap into it as a result of its numerous users. In this
present generation people have become so attached to the conventional media
that youths and students spend reasonable amount of time surfing the net.
Firms can use a social platform to spread information
about their activities and promote their brand. Facebook, one of the most
popular social platform, provides such an opportunity to firms using a feature
called spun shred stories where users use the “like” option to approve of a
particular product, service or message.
Basically, there are some social group that also
influence the way students or consumers perceive message received through
According to S Gupta and Ratna V.V. (2004:150) “Family as
social group also play an important role in influencing consumers’ behavior.
The family acts as both a primary and reference group. The family operates as
an economic unit earning and spending money.”
The family functions as directly in consumption of the
product. Students who are numbers of a family are influenced in product
selection and brand selection / purchase by the family they grew up in. it is
therefore important for markets to understand the nature of family’s influence
on its members and the way in which purchase decisions are made by the members
so that they can effectively programmed to place their advertising properly in
the various electronic media.
The conventional media which includes the internet and
email have acted in facilitating the traditional media in terms of feedback.
This is as a` result of the advert of the internet. Internet have emerged as
the most powerful communication medium so far known to mankind. The explosive
growth of the internet advertising industry is very reminiscent of the early
days of television advertising.
Based on a research carried out by S. L Gupta and V.V.
Tatna (2004) in their book Advertising and sales promotion management, it was
estimated that in United State alone by 2004, citizens will spend $16 billion a
year on health care over the internet, this is as a result of an online
Advertising placed previously about the advantage of using a particular Health
Services. In 1999 $450 million was spent on purchasing prescription drugs
online alone. More than 32 million adult a year currently 90 online for game
related content. Advertising expenditure as at 1999 in USA was 4.7 billion
alone and it is expected to rise in the years to come.
The internet grew from purely academic origins, it is
still a mixture of things and even though it is today predominantly commercial,
it is not exclusively a commercial environment. The paradigm shift in internet
usage from an academic to a commercial environment is taking place and
advertising world is taking advantage of that.
Two methods of internet advertising are in email and on
web sites. Both have useful applications. Email advertising is most often text
based, tagging along on a consumer’s incoming messages. Conversely, web
advertising usually include multimedia content, utilizing banners, buttons and
sponsorships on websites. Neither email or websites are limited, however,
websites advertising can be as small as a line of text with an embedded
hyperlink to the advertiser’s site and email advertising can include graphics.
This may implies that messages or advertising on the conventional media are not
totally truth is credible because there is no censorship or gate keeping and
there is every tendency for the advertiser to over blow their products online
using graphics whereas in the real sense the exact product might be difficult
to locate. This is done to attract their prospective buyers and increase
Consequently, challenges remain for advertisers and
agencies that are looking to deploy rich media campaigns, as well as for
publishers trying to offer reach media inventory. One of the most critical
problems with electronic marketing is that the magnitude of it overwhelms most
users. Thus, the same issue we’ve witnessed with traditional media is occurring
in electronic advertising. The consumer becomes indifferent and ignores the
vast majority of messages aimed at him.
No advertiser can assume that it’s message will generate the
exact action intended for all receivers selective perception therefore
magnifies the possibilities of an advert reaching the target audience and
falling to achieve its purpose.
Online marketing has been a significant tool to convey
messages. It is mode of media through which advertising or promotion of
tangible and intangible products, cultures and other messages can be done (Cho
et as 2007). Social marketing has seen a rapid growth however it has a risk of
not meeting its full potential because of the perception of potential customers
1.2 PROBLEMS OF THE STUDY
Advertising which in recent times have being done through
the traditional media have lost its large audience to the arrival of the
conventional media. This to large extend have result to people losing their
interest in the traditional media and also, the magnitude of message found on
the electronic media overwhelms most users which result in them been
indifferent and ignore the vast majority of messages aimed at them. The result
of this will be the advertiser not getting the desired feedback, increase in
sales and promotion of their product. There is also the issue of the advertiser
not been fully aware of the attitude and cycographic composition of their
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
study is aimed at assessing the following:
perception on seeing an advertising on electronic media e.g. facebook, twitter,
whatsapp, television, radio etc.
effects of advertising on electronic media
determine the perception of students
willingness of users / students to be exposed to conventional media network
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
How effective are
messages or advertising on electronic media
Are students more
exposed or comfortable with advertising messages on conventional media?
Are there any visible
social influence traceable in their lives as a result of advertising from
How do students
perceive messages / advertising on electronic mediagenerally?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SUTDY
The completion of this research work will help find out
some of the weakness or edge the conventional media have over the traditional
media and aid in improving it so that advertising through the traditional media
can also yield the same result as it’s counterpart. It will also help to
understand how people especially the students perceive advertising on
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to Federal Polytechnic Bida and
emphasis will be laid mostly on the students of the institution.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Due to the limited time frame given to embark on this
research work, the researchers is limited to the Federal Polytechnic student’s
due to the following reasons:
Insufficient Finance: The cost of research materials for this study is on the
high side and one may even encounter difficulty in sourcing for materials due
to the lack of fund.
Time wait for nobody. No matter how much time is allocated to the project, it
may still be insufficient due to time administered to questionnaire and
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
way in which something is regarded, understood or interpreted.
Are media that uses electronics or electromechanical energy for the end user
(Audience) to access the content of a message.
The power or ability to affect beliefs or action.
It is the non-personal communication of information usually paid for and
usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified
sponsors through the various media.
Are group of persons studying in school especially older children with one or
similar objectives of acquiring knowledge in colleges, polytechnics or