1.1 Background to the Study.
Hibiscus sabdariffa belongs to the super
order Malvaceae and it is believed to originate from East Africa
(IIondu and IIoh, 2007). H. sabdariffa plants are cultivated and
consumed as vegetable and tea, whereas other hibiscus varieties are
planted for the fibers they produce. It is called different names like
Roselle and Sorrel in English and it is locally called zobo and Isapa in
Nigeria (Adebayo and Samuel, 2000). Many parts of Roselle including
seeds,eaves, fruits and roots are used in various foods. Among them, the
fleshy red calyces are the most popular (Yadeng et al., 2005). Roselle
is used inany folk medicines. In Nigeria, the dry red calyces are
processed into a refreshing non- alcoholic beverage known as zobo.
Roselle are rich in anthocyanins and was
found to contain higher amounts of ascorbic acid compared to oranges
and mangoes (Mazza et al., 1993). The anthocyanins from the calyces of
this tropical plant are ideal for producing brilliant red colouring in
gelatin, jams, jellies and fruit beverages (Mazza et al., 1993). DP3-
sambubioside is the major pigment responsible for the reddish- violet
colour. Pharmacognosists in Senegal trend Roselle extracts for lowering
blood pressure (Morton and J., 1987). Morton, 1987 reported that both
the aqueous extract and the colouring matter of the calyces are lethal
to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
In the West Indies and tropical
America, Roselle is prized primarily for the cooling, lemonade like
beverage made from the calyces. This is still one of the most popular
summer drinks of Mexico, as Rose observed in 1899. In Egypt, Roselle
'Ade' is consumed cold in summer, hot in winter. In Jamaica, a
traditional Christmas drink is prepared by putting Roselle into an
earthenware jug with a little grated ginger and sugar as desired,
pouring boiling water over it and letting it stand over night. The
liquid is drained off and serves with ice and often with a dash of rum
(Morton and J., 1987). A similar spices drink has long been made by
natives of West Tropical Africa (Chang- Chen Chen et al., 1996). In
Nigeria, the Roselle calyces, especially the red variety have long been
uses for making local non- alcoholic drink called zobo.
Dougheri et al.,( 2007) employed some
chemical preservatives to improve the shelf life of zobo drink. They
reported that only samples treated with benzoic acid remained organ old
primally attractive after 14days of storage. However, the problem with
the Uae of chemical preservatives in food is that they tend to have
adverse effects on the health of consumers (Adesokan et al., 2010).
Therefore naturally occurring plant extracts with proven antimicrobial
properties will be preferred in food preservation (Kolapo et al., 2007).
The use of natural preservatives has become more popular as compared to
synthetic antimicrobiala and antioxidants (Aliu et al., 2007).
Spices such as ginger and garlic are two
plants traditionally used as spices in food preparation but have been
demonstrated to have both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities
(Kolapo et al., 2007).
1.2 Problem statement
Despite the fact that the popularity of
beverage from hibiscus sabdariffa is increasing, one of it's greatest
limitation for large scale production is that it has a very short shelf
life of 24hrs if not refrigerated (Omemu et al., 2006). Therefore, there
is urgent need to explore various preservation methods that could ve
employed to extend the shelf life of this product.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The manor objective of the study is the
quality assessment of nonalcoholic beverage developed from Hibiscus
sabdariffa and various spices. Which is to be achieved through the
following specific objectives;
(i) determination of physiochemical and antioxidant properties of the of the beverage and
(ii) microbiological assessment of the beverage.
1.4 Research Questions
(1) what are non alcoholic beverage?
(2) what is the nutritional importance of hibiscus sabdariffa?
(3) why the need to add spices to non alcoholic beverage from hibiscus sabdariffa?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This research gives a clear insight into
the quality assessment of non alcoholic beverage developed from
hibiscus sabdariffa and carious spices. The findings and recommendations
of thus research will make consumers aware of the benefits of adding
spices to beverage from hibiscus sabdariffa.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research focuses on the quality assessment of non alcoholic beverage developed from hibiscus sabdariffa and various spices.
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