1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The world is fast becoming a global village and a necessary tool for
this process is communication of which telecommunication is a key
player. The quantum development in the telecommunications industry all
over the world is very rapid as one innovation replaces another in a
matter of weeks. A major breakthrough is the wireless telephone system
which comes in either fixed wireless telephone lines or the Global
System of Mobile Communications (GSM). Communication without doubt is a
major driver of any economy. Emerging trends in socio-economic growth
shows a high premium being placed on information and communication
technology (ICT) by homes, organizations, and nations.
Nigeria is not left out in this race for rapid development as the
nation’s economy has been subjected to years of economic reversal via
mismanagement and bad leadership. The Nigerian telecommunications sector
was grossly underdeveloped before the sector was deregulated under the
military regime of General Ibrahim Babangida in 1992 with the
establishment of a regulatory body, the Nigerian Communication
Commission (NCC). So far the NCC has issued various licenses to private
telecommunications operator. These include 7 fixed telephony providers
that have activated 90,000 lines, 35 Internet service providers with a
customer base of about 17,000. Several VSAT service providers are in
operation, and have improved financial intermediation by providing
on-line banking services to most banks in Nigeria. These licenses
allowed private telephone operators (PTOs), to roll out both fixed
wireless telephone lines and analogue mobile phones. The return of
democracy in 1999 paved the way for the granting of GSM license to 3
service providers: MTN Nigeria, ECONET Wireless Nigeria which is now
called ZAIN and NITEL Plc which is now called ZOOM in 2001 and later
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It has been observed that calls across different networks are always
difficult to connect, at times diverted and also attract more cost. This
creates room for users to be confused as how much is deducted from
their call credits or are compelled to having multiple GSM lines. As the
network increases, more users makes call across different networks and
there is need to record the call time, call network, and line
identification and be able to put calls across the networks with out
Transmission of calls requires at least two points, A and B
(point-to-point; point-to-multipoint or multipoint-to-point).
Consequently, the interconnectivity problem within Nigeria is simply
stated as follows:
1. How can A and B, separated possibly by thousands of kilometers
within Nigeria, transmit voice to each other without each having to be
subscribers to the same operator?
2. More importantly, how can we ensure multi-user resource
allocation such that if A is the originating consumer, it does not
matter technologically (even if financially) which of ALL the other
operators that B is a subscriber to, nor does it matter what type of
transmission he or she is sending?
3. The transmission of calls with out much congestion in the network.
This will form the bases for the project work.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this research work is to establish a transparent set
of Interconnection Rules, which shall encompass at least the following
* Every operator must allow all other operators full interconnection
to its network at technically feasible and convenient points of
interconnection, such that traffic may originate on one network and
terminate on another, or otherwise pass across networks, without
interference, signal deterioration, delay, congestion, or restriction.
* To design software that will serve as a congestion control system for multi-user telecommunication networks.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will help us to know the status of GSM network resource
allocation in Nigeria with a view to knowing areas to be addressed for
better performance. This research work will aid telecommunication
companies in Nigeria to achieve the following:
1. Keep record of calls across the GSM networks.
2. Use Interswitch to put calls through to the right designation without delay, distortions or diversion.
3. Determine the calling network and receiving
network and use this information for the purpose of interconnectivity
4. Maintain a database of all registered GSM lines for all GSM communication companies.
1.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Basically the aim of this project work is to design and simulate a multi-user congestion control system for MTN.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
This research covers network connectivity and traffic control of MTN
network in Nigeria. The system covers all forms of voice calls across
the network. Both call identification, recording and network
1.7 CONSTRAINTS AND LIMITATIONS
Some of the constraints encountered during this project design include the following:
· Financial Constraints: The design was
achieved but not without some financial involvements. One had to pay
for the computer time. Also the typing and planning of the work has its
own financial involvements. However, to solve the problems I solicited
fund from guardians and relations.
· High programming Technique: The
programming aspect of this project posed a lot of problematic bugs that
took me some days to solve. Problems such as the ADO, DAO and Jet Engine
related run time errors. For instance, the Ms Access office 2000
edition does not work with VB-6. Jet Engine unless converted to lower
version of Ms ACCESS of office 1997 edition (i.e. version 2.0). Also
other technical problem, which requires semantic and syntactic
approaches where encountered as well. In seeking for the solution to
these problems, I acquired more knowledge from well –versed textbooks
· The epileptic nature of power supply cannot be overlooked.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Inter-switch: Inter-Switch Link (ISL) is a trunking method developed by Cisco to use for Ethernet and Token Ring trunk connections.
Congestion: It is the overcrowding of route,
leading to slow and inefficient flow. In computing, it is a situation
in which the amount of information to be transferred is greater than the
amount that the data communication path can carry.
Air interface: In a mobile phone network, the radio transmission path between the base station and the mobile terminal.
Asymmetric Transmission: Data transmissions where
the traffic from the network to the subscriber is at a higher rate than
the traffic from the subscriber to the network.
SIM: Subscriber Identity Module; A smart card
containing the telephone number of the subscriber, encoded network
identification details, the PIN and other user data such as the phone
book. A user’s SIM card can be moved from phone to phone as it contains
all the key information required to activate the phone.
Telecommunication: Are devices and systems that
transmit electronic or optical signals across long distances.
Telecommunication enables people around the world to contact one another
to access information instantly, and to communicate from remote areas.
Computer Network: It is a system used to connect two or more computers using a communication link.