This project is
basically on the politicization of religion in Northern Nigeria and its effects
on the Nigerian federalism.
The essence of this
study is to look at how religion is politicized in Nigeria and suggests
possible ways of resolving its attendants problems on Nigerian federalism.
The study is carried
out using both the primary and secondary data methods, where questionnaire is
used to sample the views of the people in the society, particularly those in
Northern parts of the country on issues of religion politicization.
It was however
gathered that quest for money, position, and influence are the root cause of
Also, its effect on
Nigerian federalism is severe as it generates no small amount of riots and
communal clashes in the country.
It is however deduced
from this study that religion politicization though very common in the north,
but can still be curved through proper orientation of the public, particularly
the clergy persons in the region.
More importantly, it
is also gathered that with time, as a result of globalization, rely on
politicization would be a tuning of the past in the country.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Statement of the Problem
1.2 Objectives of the Study
1.3 Research Hypotheses
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study
1.6 Organization of Study
Literature Review and
2.1 Theoretical Framework
2.2 Analysis of Elites in Nigerian Politics
2.3 Historical Foundation of Religion in
2.4 Politicization of Religion in Nigeria: The
2.5 The Strategy of the North
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Research Methodology
3.3 Questionnaire Design
3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques
3.5 Data Collection and Data Collection
3.6 Method of Data Analysis
3.7 Test Instrument (The Hypothesis)
3.8 Population of the Study
Data Analysis and
Recommendation and Conclusion
Before Nigeria became
independent on October 1, I960, the nation went through a long period of
This, what is today
known as Nigeria was actually a large vast of land consisting of various
indigenous political systems. In the northern part of the country, there were
the Hausa – Fulam Caliphate, the Kanem-Bornu Empire, the Nupe Empire system and
a host of others. In the south were the Benin Kingdom, the Yoruba and / or Oyo
Empire, the Ibo acephalous society among others.
Before the series of
amalgamation that followed the advent of colonialism, there was already in the
northern part a hitherto strong political organization of the whole north
sequel to the 1804 Islamic Jihad of Uthman Dan Fodio. It was thus
well-organized northern Nigeria that the colonialist imposed their indirect
relationship between the colonial mind-set and Darwinism is skewed to Plato''''s
philosophy of education and statecraft. For instance, just as Plato calls for a
class based education for a class structured society where individuals must
aspire to remain in the proscribed class, the educational policy of the
colonial state was similarly structured and intended.
Rather, it was
against any form of education, Muslim and Christian alike, not seared towards
the realization of the colonial state''''s agenda. Hence, the colonial state
neither destroyed nor developed the Islamic education system, though it
appropriated the cultural and socio-political ethos of the Islamic faith it met
in Nigeria to serve its interest. Similarly, the colonial state neither
destroyed the Christian missions in Nigeria nor spread them from constrictions
even though the state, to sustain itself, relied heavily on the services of the
products of the Christian educational system. In place of both the Islamic and
the Christian educational systems, the colonial state initiated a secularized system
of education. It was secularized mainly because religion was made an appendage
- something merely recognized ''''some what tardily'''' - rather than the nub of
colonial state''''s educational policy2.
By the time Lord
Lugard left Nigeria in 1918, the secularized educational policy of the colonial
state and its antecedents, the Indirect
Rule policy and
the 1914 amalgamation of
Nigeria, were already firmly established. So too was the administrative
division of the country into three unequal groups of provinces. This was to the
advantage of the favoured.
Islamic North in
comparison with its Western and Eastern counterparts in the Christian South.
By the mid-1930s and
the 1940s the colonial system become firmly consolidated. Given the largest
minimum in contact between the different parts of the country, especially
between the North and the South. It was not surprising that the colonial system
spawned in the religious and socio-political life of the country animosity,
suspicion and all sorts of divisive practices. For instance in the North, the
Northern indigenous Christian were perceived as posing political threat to the
Fulani- Islamic hegemony.
From the point of
view of national politics, the colon nil administration in the North, unlike
that in the South, had congealed into what came to be known as the ''''Northern
Systems,, that is the Anglo- Hausa-Fulani Islamic Hegemony.
The Governor, Sir
Donald Cameron (1931-1935), in the trace of shift opposition from the Northern
Residents, was so unimpressed by the system that he described the Region as:
....The sacred North,
a land apart, suspended in place and time... (which)... held up development in
the Region and kept it in an exotic back water, attractive to its
British protectors but administratively ineffective
corrupt, and insensitive to the needs of its own peoples especially the
non-Muslim and non-Northerners3.
With the successful
implantation and consolidation of the Northern system, Christian missions had
to find away to survive in a hostile environment part of their survival
mechanism was to undertake ecumenical meeting either to counter the restriction
imposed on the missions by Indirect Rule Policy or to see revenues of
compromise with the colonial administration. This led to the establishment of
the Northern Christian movement. With perceived feelings of strength the
mission decided to make to way into the political terrain like their Muslim
Suffice it to say
that many years after independence, religion has determined political victories
and decisions in the Northern part of the country. The heat this has generated
and attendant effect on the nation''''s federalism stimulates intellectual
investigation such as this.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
have always opined that political developments in Nigeria have historical and
colonial under pinning''''. This statement is an incontrovertible fact. The issue
of the politicization in Northern Nigeria in particular and the nation in
general is one of them. From the colonial days although the formation of the
Jamia Islamiya Mautaneen Arewa (JIMA) which was formed and led by Dr. R. A.B. Dikko
a Christian) which later became Northern People''''s Congress and was hijacked by
the Northern oligarchy, religion has been politicized by politicians in
Northern Nigeria to score political goals. This is because religion appeals to
the emotion and psychology of the people and spurs various reactions usually
violent reactions as seen in the various riots like the Sharia riot that had to
do with religion in Northern part of the country.
Religious riots have
often threatened the foundation of Nigerian unity such occasions have been
followed by calls for the victims of such riots to come back to their home,
where they can''''t be assured of their protection and safety. This has
implications national integration. There are clear indications that religion
will in the near future play a dominant role in the election of appointment of
political leaders from that part of the country.
What is the effect of
politicized religion on the nation''''s federalism in general and Northern Nigeria
in particular? This is what this project tends to unravel.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To identify the immediate and remote
causes of the politicization of religion in Northern Nigeria.
2. To identify the implications of this
development oil the Nigerians federalism.
3. To examine to what extent this
phenomenon has undermined national integration and unity in Nigeria.
4. To proffer possible solution and
make recommendation to government.
1.3 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To guide this study,
the following hypotheses have been formulated for testing:
1. That politicization of religion is
likely to lead to disunity.
2. The politicization of religion will
undermine the principle of federalism.
3. Politicization of religion will
result in violent re-action in the Northern area of Nigeria.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of
the study cannot be over-emphasized, especially now that there is a nascent
democracy and government is looking for ways to promoting things that unite the
country and discontinue those that tend to divide it.
The significance of
this study is as follow:
Firstly, it would
provide an insight into the role that religious is playing in Nigeria politics.
Secondly, it is hoped
that the study would provide the Nigerian leaders with enough information that
will guide them in formulation that will guide them in formulating policies in
the areas of religion and the state.
Thirdly, the study
will go a long way in changing the orientation of the people with respect to
the negative perception of religion in politics. Such understanding it is
expected would help to engender the spirit of tolerance and accommodation among
the people of diverse religion.