This study sought to determine the effect of the local resources
on students’ achievement and interest in Cultural and Creative Arts (CCA). It
also investigated the influence of gender and location on achievement and
interest in CCA when local resources are used. The two types of instructional
materials used are local resources for the experimental group while commercial
materials for the control group. The study employed a quasi experimental 2 x 2
x 2 factorial research design, involving four intact groups. Specifically the
pretest, posttest non-equivalent control group design was adopted. Ninety-Eight
(98) Junior Secondary School two (JSS 11) students randomly drawn from four
schools in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria, served as the subjects
for the study. The subjects in each of the four groups were tested before and
after treatment on their achievement and interest in the units of Cultural and
Creative Arts taught during the study. Ten research questions and ten null
hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The researcher hypothesized that
type of resources, gender and location as main effects and the interaction
between the three independent factors would not have significant (< 0.05)
effect on the learners’ achievement and interest in CCA. Instruments used for
data collection were a Cultural and Creative Arts Achievement Test (CCAAT)
which consisted of 40 questions and a Cultural and Creative Arts Interest
Inventory (CCAII) made up of 20 items. The instruments were developed by the
researcher and validated by three experts. Kuder Richardson was used to
determine the estimate of internal consistency for CCAAT and Cronbach Alpha for
CCAII which yielded reliability indices of .67 and .72 respectively. Both
instruments were considered usable. Analysis of data was done using mean and
standard deviation for the ten research questions while Analysis of Covariance
(ANCOVA) was used for the hypotheses. The results showed among others that the
commercial resources were not superior to local resources since both resources
enhanced students’ achievement and interest in CCA. There was no statistically
significant difference in the mean achievement and interest scores of students
due to the type of resources; there was no significant difference in the
achievement and interest of male and female students in CCA; there was no
significant mean difference in the achievement and interest of urban and rural
students in CCA. There was also no significant interaction effect between
resource type and gender on achievement and interest in CCA and also between
resource type and location on achievement and interest in CCA. These findings
enabled the researcher to conclude that local resources are equally very
effective in the teaching and learning of CCA. Recommendations were therefore,
made on the basis of the findings of this study. It was suggested among others
that the local resources should be used for the teaching and learning of CCA in
junior secondary schools; students should source the local resources which
abound in their local environment for their individual and group art work; and
students should popularize the use of local resources as close substitute to
commercial ones which are very scarce and expensive.
Background of the Study
Cultural and Creative Arts (CCA) programme is an amalgamation of
fine and applied arts, music, and drama. The infusion of knowledge, skills,
attitude and values in the several components of CCA enhance entrepreneurial
skill acquisition which begets good theatrical performance and good art works
(masterpiece). These types of art products make the learner achieve self
fulfillment and actualization (Buoro, 2000). Each component of CCA, including
studio activities, develops skills with the artistic process that enhances the
learners’ understanding of the subject. Such skills which the learners acquire
from CCA activities enable them to produce works which are also end products in
the process of artist’s productions (Ogumor, 2002).
Cultural and Creative Arts curriculum was first proposed in
Nigeria in the Lagos Curriculum Conference of 1969 to be one of the six core
curricula used in the primary school (Olaosebikan, 1982). It was stated in the
conference that one of the aims of CCA is to use it to impart to learners
cultural and practical values of society to which they belong. According to
Olaosebikan, CCA is like a catalyst that speeds up and controls the process of
cultural diffusion in a most meaningful way that will give the Nigerian child a
sense of direction and sound judgment to re-enact the Nigerian cultural
heritage. The subject is also aimed at expressing the emotions, experiences,
ideas and feelings, beyond the reach of language. Hence the subject was very
much recognized and rated by Wangboje (1982) as the foundation programme that
would serve the needs of students in developing their creative imagination,
self-realization, self actualization as well as sharpening intelligence and creativity.
A truly creative and well-educated person learns how to work with his/her
hands, head and every kind of work can be noble when a person gives it his/her
best effort (Buoro, 2002). This suggests that CCA programme can offer
manipulative skills for human development. The programme will be able to
produce creative, patriotic, and productive Nigerians who will contribute
optimally to national development (Orlean, 2009).
Consequently, in 1971, the Nigerian Education Research and
Development Council (NERDC) organized a workshop where specialists in drama,
education, music, fine and applied arts met to spell out what the programme
should cover for the secondary school education level. As a result of the
conference, CCA programme was adopted for secondary education but due to
logistic problems such as lack of instructional resources and qualified
teachers, the programme could not start until the introduction of the 9-Year
Universal Basic Education (UBE) in 2008 (NERDC, 2007). The curriculum stated
that CCA should be made core and compulsory subject at the UBE levels which
consist of Lower Basic Education (primary 1 – 3); Middle Basic (primary four to
six); and Upper Basic Junior Secondary School (JSS 1- JSS 3). The learning
activities in the curriculum for CCA are exciting, interesting and gainful with
useful knowledge and skill acquisition. This type of curriculum, Omole (2007)
contends, is strategically packaged to build confidence in the recipients.
The practical values which CCA inculcates in the learners include
expressing the emotions, experiences, ideas and feelings, beyond the reach of
language. If the programme is well implemented, it will also develop ones
personality in terms of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor behaviours. For
the cognitive, CCA trains individuals on the expression of conceptualized ideas
and feelings through art work. On the affective domain, it deals with the
development of aesthetic values in individuals. On the psychomotor domain, the
programme trains individuals to use their hands in the construction of useful
objects. This is in line with the cognitive, affective and psychomotor
behaviours aimed at in education. The educational objectives can be achieved
with the Universal Basic Education curriculum, which has well articulated
activities for teachers and students.
The philosophy of the Basic Education curriculum according to
NERDC (2008:2) is that every learner who has gone through 9 years of Basic
Education should have acquired appropriate levels of numeracy, manipulative,
communicative and life-long skills as well as the ethical, moral, and civic
values needed for laying a solid foundation for
live-long learning as a basis for scientific and
reflective thinking. Also that the new curriculum, among others, will provide
the basis for: “Acquisition of scientific and technological skills,
inculcation of value re-orientation; civic and moral
responsibility as well as good family
living, acquisition of skills for poverty
eradication, laying the foundation for knowledge and application of ICT”.
Cultural and Creative Arts curriculum for junior secondary
school (JSS1-3) aims at contributing its quota in the realization of the
purpose of Universal Basic Education and in turn, meet up with the challenges
of global reforms such as Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) and National
Economic Empowerment Development Strategies (NEEDS), which have their focus on
poverty reduction, wealth creation and empowerment of people through education.
Cultural and Creative Arts will help to equip learners with knowledge and
skills for self employment which is relevant to dynamic human society and
culture if properly taught in schools with relevant and adequate instructional
resources. It can also train people
in a number of professions such as sculpture, graphic
communication, textile design, ceramics, dance, drama to mention but a few.
Such capacity training can be offered by CCA because it is
structured as a broad field curriculum design, which is the outcome of a few
courses that combined with specific areas of related subjects into large fields
to eliminate the single subject compartmentalization and atomization of
learning. It also cuts across subject area boundaries which provide a
comprehensive knowledge for the learner. It facilitates more functional
organization of learning because the learner can draw experiences from the
wider subject area to solve contemporary problems (Offorma, 2002). CCA should
to be taught in a holistic manner in order to bridge the gaps that exist between
the separated subjects (NERDC, 2008). Meanwhile some teachers and students do
not take the subject seriously as a career, especially, at the JSS level. It is
noticeable in schools that teachers in JSS level teach more of theory lessons
than practical in CCA which is as a result of scarcity of commercial resources
such as plastercine, poster colour, and acrylic colour. The students are
equally denied the use of commercial resources due to their scarcity. Both the
teachers and the students tend to lack the awareness of exploring local
resources in the teaching and learning of CCA as a vocational subject as
stipulated in the UBE curriculum. In the new curriculum, NERDC (2008) points
out that the review and restructuring of the basic education is imperative. It
was established that the implementation of the new curriculum had no chance of
succeeding if the issue of paucity of instructional resources was not addressed
frontally. At the same time, it was obvious that even if all resources for
education were channeled towards procurement of instructional materials, the
demand for materials would still not be met.
Cultural and Creative Arts as part of UBE curriculum require as
much as the material resources for its implementation. Local resources which
can also be used for the teaching and learning of CCA are yet to be verified
for their efficacy. In view of that, there is the need to find out the effect
of local resources on students’ achievement and interest in CCA.
As a vocational subject, CCA involves a lot of practical work
which require the use of instructional materials. Local resources can be used
to create music (sound or audio tapes), dance, drama, drawing, paintings,
sculpture of hero and heroine; tie and dye, pottery-making, wood-carving, dance
and drama either by individual learners or group of learners or by teachers’
demonstration (NERDC, 2009).
Activities in CCA are practically oriented and can expose the
students to acquire manipulative skills, knowledge, and practical values. That
is why the teaching and learning of CCA require a lot of resources. There are
two categories of materials which can be used to implement CCA programme. One
is local materials while the other is commercialized materials. Both forms of
materials seem to be capable of engaging the learners feeling, intellect,
sensibility and impulse when they come in contact with them. Local materials
are available and cheap while the commercial materials are scarce and costly
and when commercial materials are not available, it dampens the zeal of
teachers and students and makes teaching and learning less interactive.
Commercial art materials are standard or conventional art materials, tools and
equipment which are used for the teaching and learning of CCA. These commercial
materials are manufactured on a large-scale and on commercial basis meant to
cover a wide range of geographical areas. However, teachers and students may
not be able to easily afford such art materials because of the exorbitant
prices at which they are sold. Such commercialized materials include poster
colours, plastercine, plaster of paris (POP), french curve, catridge paper,
canvas, indian ink, pelican oil tubes, piano, guitar to mention but a few.
These types of materials are mainly foreign and imported; hence they are
scarce, expensive and very difficult to find even in big shops in Nigerian
cities. This situation is worse in public schools where majority of the
students come from low income parents and guardians who cannot afford the high
prices of commercial materials. Adequate materials are required by students who
are interested in role-play, make- belief, exploration and construction work
expressed in artistic style, still, commercial materials which should enhance
these activities are lacking in schools . With the scarcity of resources, there
seem to be lack of appeal and drudgery associated with teaching and learning of
Cultural and Creative Arts.
The scarcity of commercial materials makes learners passive in
class instructions because teachers no longer use instructional materials for
teaching. It is when such commercial materials are no longer sufficient and
readily available that one thinks of exploring the environment where local
materials are richly deposited. According to Kogi (2000), local materials are
natural materials that are found in a particular place or area and are useful
for art work in. The dearth of commercial art materials has necessitated the
use of local resources. In view of this, the Nigerian Educational Research and
Development Council (NERDC) developed a handbook for teachers on the
development of instructional materials from local resources. The local
resources for the teaching and learning of CCA are numerous. They include clay,
wood, raffia, seeds, pebbles, shells, beads, ropes, animal hair (fur), leather,
dyes, wax, starch, calabash, coconut shells, husks and local colours. Kogi
(2006) explained that it is a type of material used in a picture, story or
film/movie, to make objects look real and interesting. If these local resources
are employed by teachers and students, they can improve the scarce situations
that bedevil the teaching and learning of CCA.
In implementing the CCA curriculum, enough instructional
materials are required for effective teaching and learning. This is because the
instructional materials provide opportunity for the students to be busy and
active thereby increasing their participation in CCA lessons. If any method of
teaching is not facilitated with relevant and appropriate instructional
materials, the students are motivated to have interest in CCA. If learners are
not properly motivated, the tendency is that their interests and achievements
in CCA may be low.
One of the notable local art materials is clay. It is located in
the villages, towns and countryside as deposit in the ground, processed and
used for moulding of pots, portraits and slabs for tiles. The utility of clay
ranges from designing storage object, to decorative plaques. The incentive for
the use of local resources is that they enhance creativity and curiosity which
can lead to wide exploration of natural resources by the teachers and students.
Meanwhile teachers and students are ignorant of how and where to explore local
resources. It is believed that why teachers teach with concrete instructional
resource materials is for the students to have quick understanding of concepts
and development of skills which will enable students to practice a number of
CCA activities. The commercial resources which arouse the interest of the
learners in the teaching/learning process have been lacking in school (Kogi,
2000). The availability of such commercialized materials might have been
affected by the federal government policy on import restriction which
consequently led to the scarcity of imported resources in schools (Ngaem &
Udeagha, 2000). They wrote also that few ones found in Nigerian markets are
very expensive hence no longer affordable. The students who come from low
income parents and guardians cannot afford the high prices of commercial
Instructional resources can only be properly handled by trained
teachers in order to implement educational programmes well. According to FGN
(2004) no education can arise above the quality of its teachers. This means
that teachers are important in implementing educational programmes. The teacher
is an organizer, facilitator, director, manager, in the classroom. Ukeje
(1980:21) contends that “we cannot expect quality education without quality
teachers”. Specialist teachers are required to implement the curriculum.
On the other hand, teachers have the inability to identify local
resources. They have continued to use the materials they were exposed to during
their pre-service training many years ago and this habit is often difficult for
them to change (NERDC, 2009). They fail to understand that if local materials
are properly harnessed, they may serve as substitutes to commercial resources
in teaching and learning of CCA. The incentive for the use of local resources
is that they enhance creativity and curiosity which can lead to widening the
exploration of natural resources by the teachers and students (Otugo, 1998).
In interpreting and implementing the CCA curriculum, the teacher
should consider the psychology of the learners in terms of their stages of
artistic development. This enables the teacher to present teaching material by
sequencing from simple to complex so that the teaching materials will be
beneficial to the learners. Teaching, according to Akimpelu in Offorma
(1994:134), “is a deliberate effort by a mature and experienced person to
impart information, knowledge, skills and so on to an immature or less
experienced person through a process that is morally and pedagogically
accepted”. In the same vein, Ngwoke (1995) states, that teaching is a
systematic activity deliberately engaged by someone to facilitate the learning
of intended worthwhile knowledge, skills, values, and getting the necessary
feedback. Local resources which are easily sourced from the villages, towns and
local environments can enhance effective teaching and learning. If teachers
motivate the learners adequately with local resources relevant to learning
experience in Cultural and Creative Arts, the effect of such resources may
engage the child’s intellect, intuition, feeling, imagination, sensation and
Training of CCA teachers is very important so as to be able to
facilitate instruction by using resources effectively. The trained teachers can
enhance students’ interest and achievement with directed activity method and
free activity method, which use instructional resources extensively (Wamgboje
in Ogboji, 2008). These methods also require a lot of materials for students to
be motivated into action and to progress in their activities. In directed
activity, the teacher assigns tasks to students to solve. Continually, the
teacher directs the students to apply the strategies for the use materials in
tackling the art task until they produce art work to the taste of the teacher.
The use of directed activity method does not give children freedom to act from
In free activity method, the teacher only supervises their
activities while the learners continue to practice until they achieve art work
from their creativity. Free activity methods that encourage students’ active
participation in CCA include project method, assignment method, and discussion
method. Some teachers tend to neglect some of these methods that can really
make impact on the students. These methods provide the opportunity for
students’ creative use of various art materials in CCA. The students at the
Basic Education level are at the age of curiosity and may be familiar with some
local resources proposed for them. So there is need for teachers to encourage
students to use them.
Other techniques that can use local resources are concomitant to
free activity method and they include drama, songs, games, story-telling,
role-play, debate, case study, simulation, demonstration, group discussion,
brainstorming, play and questions. In using the methods and resources, teachers
are instructional decision makers who organize and manage their classrooms and
resource materials for the benefit of the students (Offorma, 2002). An
effective CCA teacher utilizes the resources as motivation for the students to
encounter the content of a lesson. Resources that are cheap and sourced locally
can be used for all the components of CCA. They can intensify students’
awareness, sense of creativity and enjoyment of nature and life in the society.
The learning experiences in music, dance and drama offer opportunity for self
identification for social purposes. This is because the themes in CCA
activities emanate from philosophy, social, moral and historical spheres of
The impact of the values a person gets from CCA is the basis of
his social outlook, interest and value, good character and conduct in human
life. It means that the use of local resources in the school can be transferred
to other subject areas and put into practice outside school. For example, if a
person learns how to use local resource in making a variety of complex forms
and subtle qualities of lines, shapes, colours, voice, body movement and
actions from CCA themes at the UBE level, he/she has acquired powers or
experiences which are carried over into daily life. Apart from being a
professional artist, everyone who engages in CCA activities has the opportunity
for some kind of artistic expression such as tie and dye, and bead making. Art
works such as painting, sculpture, graphics, textiles, drama, dance and music
performance can be executed using local resources.
The quest for sustainable instructional resources led to
exploration of local resources for the teaching and learning of Cultural and
Creative Arts. The use of local resources is crucial because it can inculcate
entrepreneurial skills for economic development. Children’s ability to learn
depends on their age and they learn better with concrete materials, which
involve all their senses of sight, touch, taste, smell, and hearing (Offorma,
2002). These senses when excited or aroused in the learners through
instructional resources bring about active participation in class instruction.
The utilization of instructional resource materials makes both
the teachers and students effective in the class. According to (Nwoji, 2003),
resource utilization is the process of managing and organizing resources within
the environment for teaching and learning. She categorized resources as people,
materials, equipment, and tools which are available in the community, town,
state or country and remain latent and untapped if not harnessed for
utilization. While human resources are tutorial and non tutorial staff,
students and other persons that work in the school, the resource materials
include visuals, maps, charts, pictures, specimens and real objects as well as
It is necessary to advocate for the use of local resources as an
alternative to commercial resources in implementing CCA programme because they
abound in the local environment and local resources are equally affordable.
They are sourced within the locality where they are used by skilled hands as
simple tools (NTI, 2000). Teachers and students can avail themselves of the
opportunity of laying their hands on such art materials in their localities.
Also, if the local resources are utilized, the understanding of concepts in CCA
will be easy to learn by students. For instance, there are some students who
would only need to see the subject matter to be learnt presented in pictures,
drawings, or modeling and catch the message. These students need opportunities
to get up from their seats and make use of their hands and body, to enjoy
learning (Anaduaka, 2008). If the available local resources are numerous and
available and used in teaching and learning CCA, they can serve as substitute
to commercial materials which are scarce and lacking in schools.
From the researcher’s observation and visits to schools,
students lack commercial materials and there seems to be lack of appeal and
high incidence of drudgery associated with the teaching of Cultural and Creative
Arts when resources are scarce. The ugly situation renders both the teachers
and students helpless in the teaching and learning of most CCA contents.
According to Otugo (1998), music learning cannot achieve the predetermined
purposeful change in the behaviour of the learner without adequate provision
and proper utilization of instructional resources. In music, such western
instruments like electric piano, guitar and trumpet are scarce in schools.
Badamasi, Modupe, Uche and Hope (1995) contend that art materials such as
poster colours and plastercine are very expensive and difficult to be provided
by teachers and students. They opine that since Nigeria is blessed with natural
resources from which local art materials can be derived; there is urgent need to
explore their use in CCA.
On the use of instructional materials, Chira and Obi (1999),
maintained that lessons in CCA are supposed to be practical but due to lack of
necessary materials and facilities for learning, they are turned into theory
lessons. They maintain that there is problem of lack of resource materials and
Cultural and Creative Arts cannot be well taught without such materials.
Furthermore, Ngaem and Udeagha (2000) also observed that instructional art
materials are lacking in schools and it is a major problem militating against
the effective learning of Cultural and Creative Arts. In view of the above, it
is obvious that CCA requires some art materials that will be readily available
and which will serve as a substitute to commercial art materials. Onoja and
Ugwu (2005) emphasized that the continued mass failure in drama was as a result
of non-availability of instructional resources and facilities which make
students to naturally lose interest.
It has been suggested that the use of local art resources which
are cheap and available may serve as substitute to commercial ones which are
scarce. Teachers and students feel daunted to do variety of art works due to
their inability to develop appropriate materials from local resources which
abound in the local environment. This poses problems in the teaching and
learning of CCA. If local materials are effectively utilized in learning CCA,
they may likely arouse student’s interest and in turn raise their academic
achievement in the subject.
Interest is a very important factor affecting learners’
participation in school activities. Children are prone to playing with objects
and artifacts which tend to arouse their interest in activities. Teachers also
use instructional resources to arouse interest in the students. Instructional
resources tend to motivate learners into action, hence when they are lacking,
learners cannot lay their hands on them. This variably results in lack of
interest on the part of the learners. According to Princeton (2010) interest is
a sense of concern with and curiosity about someone or something. Instructional
resource materials in CCA have the power of attracting or holding one’s power
of creativity and originality which enhances the creative ingenuity in a
person. Creativity is a matter of the mind which is disposed to create ideas
and make individuals to rearrange existing patterns to get something novel and
spectacular (Nnach, 2009). When learning activities like the one in CCA, arouse
interest in the learner, learning becomes more significant, meaningful and
enjoyable (Offorma, 2002). If relevant and appropriate instructional resources
are utilized in teaching and learning of CCA, they may enhance achievement of
students in the subject.
Achievement of students can be low or high and has been
recognized as natural phenomena in the school. Some students fail to do well
because of not being interested in, either the content presented or the
instructional resources are not available. The weakness students’ exhibit in
some school subjects confirms that something is wrong in the way such subjects
are taught. According to Habor–Peters in Anaduaka (2008), some of the factors
responsible for poor performance of students emanate from sources which are
psychological and environmental. According to Okonmah (2010), music text books,
tools, equipment and workshop which make teaching and learning effective are
not easy to come by. She opined that musical instruments make music what they
are and whereby they are not available, the teaching and learning of it become
uninteresting. Drama is also affected in the way it is taught with inadequate
instructional resources due their scarcity (Buoro, 2000). He wrote that lack of
instructional resources in the area of music and drama tends to affect
learners’ achievement in music and drama components of CCA. Nevertheless he
said that indigenous resource materials may be a way out in the learning of
drama in schools.
From the foregoing, the utilization of resource materials which
abound in local environment may equally enhance the teaching and learning of
CCA and make students learn very well. Therefore, there is the need to
investigate their level of achievement in CCA when local and commercial
resources are used differently.
Besides, gender differences in performance in a learning
environment are recognized as an important focus in research (Udeze, 2008).
Boys and girls have psychological feelings of different degrees of intelligence
and creativity. Culturally, boys and girls have peculiar ways of behaving and thinking.
This orientation stems from the homes where they perform different roles or
functions (Kleinfield, 2000). Kleinfield reported that this attitude is also
carried over to school. While boys may be drawn to subjects such as science and
physical education in schools, girls may be drawn to subjects such as social
studies and arts. He noted that girls consistently score higher grades at
school in virtually most art subjects while Gunn (2003) asserted that females
often perform better than males in languages and liberal arts. Therefore, there
is need to determine the influence of gender on students’ performance in CCA
using local resources.
Another, important factor that may enhance or mar teaching and
learning of CCA is school location. Facilities and infrastructure are such
factors that may differ with urban and rural schools. Many researchers have
shown interest in determining whether school location has effect on achievement
and interest of school children. According to Uzoegwu (2004, P.12) “the location
of school determines so many things that are important in learning such as
learning facilities, infrastructure and the class size among others. Adequate
provision for or lack of these facilities may facilitate or hinder learning”.
School location may also affect the outcome of local resources’ utilization in
the teaching and learning of CCA, hence there is need to carry out further
research in this area.
In selecting resources for teaching and learning, Berky (2007)
expressed that availability and effective use of instructional materials have
major influence on the selection of teaching methods. It is surprising that
local resources are available in the local environment but students are not
familiar with them. This may be as a result of lack of awareness of the
efficacy in using them. Commercial resources which are lacking in schools have
adverse effect on CCA teaching/learning in terms of achievement and interest.
Students are not aroused or motivated when instructional materials are not
available in school; hence achievement and interest of students are adversely
affected. In the light of this study therefore, it is necessary to verify the
effect of utilization of local resources on students’ achievement and interest
Statement of the Problem
Cultural and Creative Arts is one of the subjects introduced in
the 9-Year Basic Education by the Federal Government of Nigeria as part of
educational reform in the education sector. Nigeria is undergoing social change
which necessitated that indigenous technology should be vigorously pursued yet,
many classrooms where indigenous technology should be emphasized, and lack
local resources that can arouse the interest of students. The neglect of local
resources was due to the Western education that brought foreign influences in
schools, including imported educational resources which are now lacking in
Consequently, the researcher observed during his visit to
some schools that the CCA is taught without enough instructional resources,
thereby hampering participation and performance of students in CCA. This may be
as a result of lack of foreign and commercial CCA materials which were
extensively used in the past but are no longer accessible to both students and
their teachers which is the concern of this study. The scarcity was also due to
the inflation and global economic melt-down which affected Nigerian foreign
exchange and importation of some goods into the country, of which
CCA instructional resources were part. As a result many commercial art materials
for art works were contraband and no longer found in the open market.
The teachers and students who were using foreign materials find
it difficult to change to local resources which can easily be sourced from the
environment. This situation makes teachers resort to verbalization of contents
which otherwise would require concrete instructional resources. The students
are not left out in the neglect of local resources. They avoid working on
options involving such resource materials in mosaic, mural painting, calabash,
pottery, clay, raffia and xylophone. Their scarcity also makes teachers
present instructional resources haphazardly and deny learners the opportunity
of laying their hands on the relevant instructional resources. The
efficacy of local resources in CCA instruction is not known. The problem of
this study, therefore, is absence of information on effects of local resources
on achievement and interest of male and female students in Cultural and
Purpose of the study
The general purpose of this study is to find out the effect of
the type of resources on junior secondary school students’ achievement and
interest in Cultural and Creative Arts. Specifically, the study aimed at
1. effect of type of resources on students’ achievement in
Cultural and Creative Arts.
2. effect of type of resources on students’ interest in
Cultural and Creative Arts.
3. influence of gender on achievement of students in Cultural
and Creative Arts when taught with local resources.
4. influence of gender on the interest of students in
Cultural and Creative Arts when taught with local resources.
5. influence of location on achievement of students in
Cultural and Creative Arts when taught with local resources.
6. influence of location on the interest of students in
Cultural and Creative Arts when taught with local resources.
7. Interaction effect of type of instructional resources and
gender on students’ achievement
in Cultural and Creative Arts.
8. Interaction effect of type of instructional resources and
gender on students’ interest in Cultural and Creative Arts.
9. Interaction effect of type of instructional resources and
school location on students’ achievement in Cultural and Creative Arts.
10. Interaction effect of type of instructional resources and
school location on students’ interest in Cultural and Creative Arts.
Significance of the
This study will be practically significant to teachers,
students, curriculum planners, textbooks writers and art practitioners in the
society. This study also has theoretical significance which deals with theories
and their influence on the teaching and learning of CCA using local resources.
The cognitive art theories relate to how a child’s art is affected by the
neurophysiologic state of the organism, its personality and its environment as
guiding principles for the teaching and learning of CCA. The theories focus on
artistic development of children in terms of their expression with material
resources. The outcome of this study will help to clarify how adequate the use
of local resources is in the process of teaching and learning of CCA and their
effect on learners – interest, achievement, gender, and location.
The finding of this study will also be significant to teachers
because through the dissemination of the information, they will aware of the
use of local resources as substitute to commercial resources for the teaching
and learning of CCA.
To students, the findings of this study will help them to use
local resources that are readily available from their environment at affordable
prices. Local materials are efficacious to achieve proficiency in CCA works.
The findings will provide curriculum planners with information
about local resources which they will incorporate in the curriculum of CCA for
the Universal Basic Education. This will make the CCA programme more functional
Furthermore, textbook writers will have an opportunity to
produce new textual materials on local resources. This will also provide them
with the correct information about local resources which will be a substitute
to commercial materials.
Besides, this study will provide information to art professional
bodies on the local resources as alternative to commercial CCA materials. This
information will be publicized in the professional journals which are sources
of information dissemination. The information will help to make local resources
popular. Such professional bodies include: Nigerian Society of Education through
Art (NSEA), Nigerian Society of Artists (NSA), Post Primary Art Teachers’
Association (PPATA), etc.
Finally, this study will contribute to knowledge regarding local
resources and their effect on gender in the teaching and learning of CCA. It
will generate interest of researchers who will also replicate this type of
studies to confirm whether or not the utilization of local resources will
affect the achievement and interest of students in CCA.
Scope of the study
The study was conducted in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu
State, Nigeria. The study examined the effect of utilization of local resources
on achievement and interest of male and female students in visual arts, music
and drama (CCA) in Junior Secondary School Two (JSS 11) based on school
Four units drawn from JSS 11 Cultural and Creative Arts
(CCA) curriculum were used for the study. They are:
1. Acquisition of CCA skills in:
a) Drawing and painting.
b) Colour tonality (application of light and shade on object).
2. Kinds of music, staff, clef, listening, dance, keyboard and
3. Clay preparation and
4. Play, cast and dramatization
These topics were chosen because of their importance as the
foundation for other topics in Cultural and Creative Arts. Both local and
commercial resources were used by teachers and students for this study. Five
variables were considered in this study. There were achievement and interest as
dependent variables while local resources, gender and location as independent
The following questions guided the study:
1. What are the mean achievement scores
of students taught CCA using local resources
taught with commercial resources?
2. What are the mean interest rating scores of students taught
CCA with local resources
and those taught with commercial resources?
3. What are the mean achievement scores of male and female
students in CCA when
taught with local resources?
4. What are the mean interest rating scores of male and female
students in CCA when
taught with local resources?
are the mean achievement scores of urban and rural students in CCA when taught
with local resources?
are the mean interest rating scores of urban and rural students in CCA when
taught with local resources?
3. What is
the interaction effect of type of instructional resources and gender
on students’ means achievement scores in CCA?
4. What is
the interaction effect of type of instructional resources and gender on
students’ mean interest rating scores in CCA?
5. What is
the interaction effect of type of instructional resources and school locations
on students’ mean achievement scores in CCA?
6. What is
the interaction effect of type of instructional resources and school location
on student’s mean interest rating scores in CCA?
The following null hypotheses were tested at the probability
level of .05.
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the mean
achievement scores of students taught CCA using local resources and those
taught using commercial resources.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean
interest rating scores of students taught CCA using local resources and those
taught using commercial resources.
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the mean
achievement scores of male and female students in CCA when taught with local
Ho4: There is no significant difference in the mean
interest rating scores of male and female students in CCA when taught with
Ho5: There is no significant difference in the mean
achievement scores of urban and rural students in CCA when taught with local
Ho6: There is no significant difference in the mean
interest rating scores of urban and rural students in CCA when taught with
Ho7: There is no significant interaction effect of
type of instructional resources and gender on students’ achievement in CCA.
Ho8: There is no significant interaction effect of
type of instructional resources and gender on students’ interest scores in CCA.
Ho9: There is no significant interaction effect of
type of instructional resources and school location on students’ achievement
scores in CCA.
Ho10: There is no significant interaction effect of
type of instructional resources and school location on students’ mean interest
rating scores in CCA.