1.1 BACKGROUND OF
Soybean is one of the most economical and nutritious foods
which can combat the diseases stemming from malnutrition and the nutraceutical
ingredients present in it and can reduce the risk of major chronic diseases
like cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoporosis and diabetes (Vineet, 2007). Soybean
is an excellent source of quality protein and compares well with animal protein
in essential amino acids pattern with the exception of sulphur containing amino
acids. Soybean is the concentrated source of vegetable proteins. It contains
about 40%protein and 20% oil.
Proteins are abundantly rich in lysine which is a limiting
amino acid in most of the cereals. Soy fat being highly unsaturated has been
found to be nutritionally desirable. Therefore, it can easily supplement the
diet of poor Indians (Chauhan, 2005). It has high proportion of unsaturated
fatty acids, such as linoleic and linolenic acids, it is considered as highly
healthful oil. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid
is 82:18, which is highly conducive to lower the blood cholesterol. Soy food
contains most of the desirable characteristics therefore; it may be treated as
consummate functional food.
Soybean also contains many minor substances, which are
biologically active non nutritive components known as “phytochemicals”,
“isoflavones” or “phytoestrogen” also known as coumesterol or “plant estrogen”
very similar to that of female sex hormone estrogen) with very weak activity of
estrogen, which offers unique health benefits.
Soybean is a good source of niacin, riboflavin, iron,
potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous with several fat and water
soluble vitamin Bcomplex (Tripathi, 2005). Soybeans are often called the
“miracle crop.” They are the world’s foremost provider of vegetable protein and
oil. The bushy, green soybean plant is a legume related to peas, groundnuts
(peanuts) and alfalfa.
Soybeans are included in the category of oilseed, which is a
generic reference to crops with seeds that can produce edible and/or non-edible
oil in economic quantities. The most versatile of the world’s major crops,
soybeans can be grown in a wider variety of soil and climatic conditions than
any other major world crop. Consequently, soybeans are the most widely grown
oilseed in the world. In the last 20 years, scientists have learned how to
extract a much wider variety of byproducts from soybeans that are proving
beneficial in animal feed, human food and industrial applications.
Rats have a long history in medical research. They were the
first mammalian species specifically domesticated to be used in the laboratory.
They are thought to have originated in some parts of Asia; Rattusrattus was
well established in Europe by 1100 A.D., with Rattus norvegicus commonly found
in Europe in the 1700s. By the 1800s, these animals were used for neuro-anatomy
studies in the United States and in Europe. It was in the late 1800s and early
1900s that individual stocks and strains had their beginnings (Animals in
research, 2013; Sengupta, 2013).
The success of the rat in research today has been linked to
the Wistar Institute in the United States of America, when in 1906, the
institute developed the Wistar albino strain (Rattus norvegicus) (The Wistar
Institute: History, 2007). Currently, there are 117 albino strains of the
laboratory rat, all of which can be traced genetically back to the one rat,
likely to have arisen as a mutation from a hooded (piebald) rat strain (Animals
in research, 2013).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE
Soy bean is a legume that is very rich in vitamins and when
mixed with other grains to be used as a complementary food can also improve
hormonal functionality. But in a situation of determining the effect of it in
hormonal growth of rat becomes a little bit problematic in the sense that there
might be inadequate instrument for the experiment to be carried out, secondly
might be that there might be no competent hands in the laboratory to carry out
the experiment. Thirdly could be that there are no good laboratory set up to
carry out all the necessary experiment needed. Finally, there have been several
research carried out on the effect of soya bean but there have been no single
research carried out on the effect of soy groundnut mixed grain complementary
food on the level of selected food on the growth of hormones in male weaning