GROWTH AND FATTENING PERFORMANCE OF YANKASA RAMS FED COMPLETE DIET CONTAINING UREA AND LIME TREATED GROUNDNUT SHELL (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA) SHELL



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GROWTH AND FATTENING PERFORMANCE OF YANKASA RAMS FED COMPLETE DIET CONTAINING UREA AND LIME TREATED GROUNDNUT SHELL (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA) SHELL



ABSTRACT

 

Two studies were conducted to determine growth and fattening performance of Yankasa rams fed complete containing urea and lime treated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) shell. The shell was treated with 5% urea, 5% lime and 2.5% of urea and lime for each known weight of the shell (50g/kg shell). In the first study four treatment diets were formulated containing 40% untreated groundnut shell (UNTGNS), 40% urea treated groundnut shell (UTGNS), 40% lime treated groundnut shell (LTGNS) and 40% urea plus lime treated groundnut shell (ULMTGNS). Other ingredients were maize offal, cotton seed cake, bone meal ruminants‟ premix and salt. 20 Yankasa ram lambs of 9-10 months were used and randomly assigned to the four treatments diets with five animals per treatment in completely randomized design (CRD). The diets were formulated to contain 15% crude protein (CP) content. The growth trial lasted for 90 days. Three ram lambs from each of the treatment groups were randomly selected and housed in individual metabolism crates for digestibility Parameters measured were daily feed intake, daily weight gain; feed conversion ratio, blood metabolites digestibility, nitrogen retention, cost and apparent profit. Second study was conducted to determine effect of the treated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) shell in fattening Yankasa rams. The treatment diets were adjusted to 14% C P content. Sixteen Yankasa rams were used and randomly assigned to the four treatment diets with four animals per treatment in a completely randomized design (CRD). The fattening trial lasted for 90 days. Three rams from each of the treatment groups were randomly selected and housed in individual metabolism crates for digestibility study. Rumen liquor was collected. Carcass analysis was carried out using three rams from each of the treatment group. Measured parameters were feed intake, weight gain, digestibility, nitrogen balance, rumen microbial load, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, total volatile fatty acid, carcass characteristics and cost benefit. Results of the first study indicated that ram lambs fed ULMTGNS diet had the highest daily feed intake of 88.69g/day. However highest daily weight gain (94.66g) was observed in ram lambs fed LTGNS diet with least in ram lambs on UTGNS. In feed conversion ratio ram lambs on LTGNS diet had the least mean values (8.94) and were significantly (P<0.05) different from those on UTGNS and ULMTGNS diets. Ram lambs on UTGNSU diet showed better digestibility coefficient among the treatment diets (49.99%). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was higher than normal values reported by other authors (2.8-7.1Mmol/L). Creatinine range of (123.17- 150.00Mmol/L) across the treatment diets was in conformity with the normal value (106- 168Mmol/L). Total protein was within the range of the normal values (60-79g/L). The result of nitrogen intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher in rams lambs fed ULMTGNS diet compared with the other treatment groups. Nitrogen retained as percent intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the UTGNS, LTGNS and ULMTGNS diets than the UNTGNS. Results of the economic analysis of growing ram lambs showed that ram lambs on LTGNS diet had the highest feed cost (₦5142.43) and those on ULMTGNS diet had the highest total weight gain (8.58Kg), followed by those fed LTGNS diet but a better apparent

 

profit was realized from ram lambs fed UNTGNS diet (N1774.50). The results of the second study showed that rams fed UNTGNS diet had the highest daily dry matter intake (1027.37g) with least mean value in those on UTGNS. Rams fed UTGNS had the least daily weight gain (77.78g) rams on UNTGNS diet still had the highest daily weight gain. Feed conversion ratio was least but better in rams fed UNTGNS diet. Rams on UTGNSU diet had the highest digestibility coefficient in most of the feed components. Highest nitrogen absorbed and N retained as % intake were recorded in rams fed UNTGNS and ULMTGNS diets. Higher ammonia nitrogen and total volatile fatty acids were observed in rams fed UNTGNS diet. On rumen microbial load, more bacteria were observed in animals fed UTGNS diet followed by those on UNTGNS diet. The dressing percentage of the rams fed UNTGNS diet (53%) was higher followed by those on LTGNS diet. But the meat yield percentage was higher in rams fed LTGNS diet, with a better meat bone ratio in rams on ULMTGNS diet. Results of the studies showed that daily feed intake and weight gain were better in growing ram lambs fed LTGNS diet, but for fattening, rams on UNTGNS diet had the better daily intake and daily weight gain. However, the cost benefit analysis of both the growing and fattening rams showed that rams on UNTGNS diet had the highest apparent profit followed by those on urea treated diet. It can be concluded that ground shell of groundnut can be used in diet formulation of small ruminants. Inclusion of up to 40% is recommended.

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0 INTRODUCTION

 

Bourn et al. (2002) estimated Nigerian ruminants livestock population to be about13.9 million cattle, 22.1 million of sheep and 34.5million goats. FAO (2016) reported about 15.2 million cattle, 28 million goats, 23 million sheep in Nigeria. In spite of these impressive statistics on sheep and goat, their potentials are not fully realized due to low productivity, high mortality, low growth rate, low productive performance among others (Mahadi, 2002).

 

Sheep are able to use marginal lands and crop residues as feed and are kept in Nigeria mainly for meat (Bello, 2008). They are ranked second after cattle in terms of meat production (FDLPCS, 1992). FAO (2016) reported sheep to contribute 16% of the total domestically produced meat in Nigeria. Of the four breeds of sheep in Nigeria, Yankasa sheep are perhaps the most widely and most numerous breed in the Northern part of the country, they are found in the Sahel, Sudan and Guinea Savannah zones of the Country (Gefu, 2002).

 

Increasing demand for rams and bucks as slaughter animals for meat can be satisfied through fattening. The primary objective of fattening is to increase the live weight of the animal and the quality of meat in relatively shorter period (Osuhor, 2002 ). Animal for fattening is confined while feeds and water are ad-libitum throughout the fattening period, though it can be achieved in a semi-intensive system, where they are offered more feed supplements than the rest of the flock before or after released for grazing.

 

Feed is one of the important factors that limit livestock production in the tropics especially during the dry season when high quality forages are scarce (Adebowale and Taiwo, 1996). The cost of livestock feeds and feed ingredients in recent years has increased tremendously. Hence, the cost of feeding has become a major problem of livestock production in the developing countries. Aduku (1993) reported cost of feed to account for about 70% of the total cost of animal production. This therefore necessitates the need and interest in exploring neglected or underutilized feedstuff materials, such as groundnut shells which are left after the groundnut was processed and are very much available in the north western zone of the country. Several researches (Abdul Hamid, 2013; Adamu, 2015) were conducted in this area, however, not much has been done in evaluating nutritive potentials of groundnut shell in the diet of sheep in attempt to reduce the cost of sheep production.

 

Groundnut shell is the residue of crop specie called Arachis hypogaea, a specie in the legume or „bean‟ family (Fabaceae). The crop is known with many other names such as groundnut, peanut, monkey nut, earthnut, goober nut and pygmy nut. Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is among the important crops grown in Sub-Saharan Africa (Nigam et al., 1991). Grown either as sole crop or mixed with other crops. It provides both high quality nuts for human consumption as well as high quality fodder for livestock. An important oil seed crop in Nigeria, grown widely in the Tropics and Sub-tropics (Ehlers and Hall, 1997). Desire et al. (2010) reported groundnut to have ability to grow even in sandy soils and is legume of high nutritive value as well as being a source of edible oil. The fruit is a pod with one to five seeds that develops underground within a needle-like structure called a peg. The seeds are rich in oil, 38-50 protein, calcium, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium and vitamins (Adamu, 2015)

 

Jumia (2012) reported groundnut shell to have dry matter content to about 90.3% of which 4.8-7.2 is crude protein, 1.0-1.1% is crude fat and 65.7-79.3% is cellulose and lignin. Carbohydrate is 10.6-21.2%, crude ash is 1.9-4.6%, calcium is 0.24%, and phosphorus is 0.08-0.09%. The dry matter per kilogram contains digestible energy of 4.605-5.108 KJ for cow, 4.438-4.898 KJ for sheep, including digestible protein as 15-17grams/Kg. The shell also contains vitamins and part of the amino acids after microbial process.

 

Groundnut shells were reported to contain 65.7% cellulose, 21.2% carbohydrates, 7.3% protein, 4.5% minerals and 1.2% lipids, since the processed shells from shelling machines contain bits and skins of nuts, the actual protein and lipid contents of this waste material are probably much higher (Abdur-Razak et al., 2014).

 

Justification of the Study

 

Utilization of crop residues as animal feed ingredients is attracting intense research focus and interest to many researchers (Abdul Hamid, 2013; Adamu, 2015), as conventional feedstuff remained unaffordable to low income farmers because of the cost (Bello, 2008). The problem of feed cost raised the need to search for alternative feed sources that can economically supplement the conventional feed ingredients used in ration formulation without adverse effects on the health and performance of the animals. Groundnut shell is an agro-industrial by-product found in large quantities in areas where groundnut is

 

produced and processed. Sub-Saharan region is one of the zones of groundnut production and processing, after the processing the shell is left in large quantity.

 

Information on the utilization of groundnut shell as ingredient for feeding ruminants such as sheep is very scarce. Most of the earlier researches conducted were on groundnut haulms (Malau-Aduli et al., 2003 and Arslan, 2005). The residue is left in the processing area after the seed had had being removed, constituting environmental problem. It sometimes results to environmental hazard as it blocks drainage in over flooding. It takes longer period for the shell to decompose; farmers therefore do not appreciate it as compost manure. While burning it may lead to air pollution, increasing atmospheric temperature that adds to the global warming. Jumia (2012) suggested microbial fermentation, if groundnut shell is to be incorporated into feed. In fermentation the shell be crushed first and stewed, at 600C or so, add 1% of dry yeast powder and decomposing bacteria to fermentation pool. Utilization of groundnut shell in the diet of ruminant animals will not only reduce cost of production but also helps in reducing its negative environmental impact.

 

Objectives of the Study

 

The general objective of the study was to:

 

Investigate the effect of urea and lime treated groundnut shell in complete diet fed to growing and fattening Yankasa rams.

The specific objectives were to determine: 

Citation - Reference

All Project Materials Inc. (2020). GROWTH AND FATTENING PERFORMANCE OF YANKASA RAMS FED COMPLETE DIET CONTAINING UREA AND LIME TREATED GROUNDNUT SHELL (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA) SHELL. Available at: https://researchcub.info/department/paper-8367.html. [Accessed: ].

GROWTH AND FATTENING PERFORMANCE OF YANKASA RAMS FED COMPLETE DIET CONTAINING UREA AND LIME TREATED GROUNDNUT SHELL (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA) SHELL


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