NIGERIA EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES TRANSPARENCY INITIATIVE (NEITI) AND NATURAL RESOURCE REVENUE GOVERNANCE IN THE NIGERIAN OIL AND GAS SECTOR (2007 – 2015)



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NIGERIA EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES TRANSPARENCY INITIATIVE (NEITI) AND NATURAL RESOURCE REVENUE GOVERNANCE IN THE NIGERIAN OIL AND GAS SECTOR (2007 – 2015)



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title ————————————————————————————      i

Certification ————————————————————————————-    ii

Approval ——————————————————————————————    iii

Dedication ——————————————————————————————    iv

Acknowledgement —————————————————————————–    v

Table of Contents ———————————————————————————    vii

List of Figures ————————————————————————————     xi

List of Tables ————————————————————————————-     xv

List of Appendices ————————————————————————–    xix

Abbreviations and Acronyms ———————————————————  xx

Abstract —————————————————————————————–    xxiv

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION       

1.1       Background to the Study —————————————————–  1         

1.2       Statement of the Problem ————————————————————   5

1.3       Objectives of the Study —————————————————————   8

1.4       Significance of the Study ——————————————————   8

1.5       Scope and Limitations of the Study ———————————— 10

1.5.1    Scope of the Study ——————————————————————   10

1.5.2    Limitations of the Study ————————————————————-   10

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1       Introduction ————————————————————————-     12

2.2       Conceptual Framework  ——————————————————    12

2.2.1    Natural Resource Revenues —————————————————-    12

2.2.2    Natural Resource Revenue Governance ———————————  15

2.2.3    Resource Led Development —————————————————-   17

2.2.4    Resource Curse ———————————————————————–    20

2.3       Natural Resource Revenue Governance and Initiatives to address the Resource Curse – Transparency and accountability initiatives (TAIs) ———- 26

2.4       Emergence of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) —————–          31

2.5       Implementation of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative in Nigeria (NEITI) ———————————————————    38

2.5.1    The Extractive Industries Sector in Nigeria ————————– 38

2.5.2    The Oil and Gas Sector ———————————————    39

2.5.3    The Oil and Gas Sector and the Resource Curse in Nigeria-            42

2.5.4    Tackling the Resource Curse through the Nigeria Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (NEITI): The NEITI – Natural Resource Revenue Governance Nexus ————————————————    49

2.5.5    Nigeria Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (NEITI) and Enforcement of Transparency and Accountability in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Sector —————           54

2.5.6    Nigeria Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (NEITI)and Stakeholders in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Sector ———–            58

2.6       Gap in Literature ————————————————————-    64

2.7       Theoretical Framework————————————————————-    64

2.7.1    The Institutional Theory ——————————————————    64

2.7.2    Tenets of the Institutional Theory of Mahlum, Moene and Torvik-68

2.7.3    Relevance of the Theory to the Study ——————————-  69

2.8       Hypotheses —————————————————–     70

2.9       Operational Definition of Concepts ———————————  71

2.9.1    Natural Resource Revenues —————————————   71

2.9.2    Natural Resource Revenue Governance ——————————–  71

2.9.3    Resource Led Development ———————————————-   72

2.9.4    Resource Curse ———————————————————-     72

2.9.5    Audit Process —————————————————     72

2.9.6    Audit Publications —————————————————     72

2.9.7    Conflicting Multi Stakeholder Interests ———————————  73

2.9.8    Weak Civil Society ——————————————————     73

2.9.9    Multi Stakeholder Synergy ————————————————–    73

2.9.10 Civil Society Empowerment —–

CHAPTER THREE: AREA OF THE STUDY AND RESEARCH PROCEDURE

3.1       Introduction ———————————————————————-     75       

3.2       Area of the Study ——————————————————————   75

3.2.1    The Nigeria Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (NEITI) 75

3.2.2    Mandate of the Nigeria Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (NEITI) ————————————————————     78

3.2.3    Administrative Structure of the Nigeria Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (NEITI) —————————————    79

3.2.4    Functions of Departments of the Nigeria Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (NEITI) ——————————————-    81

3.3       Research Procedure ——————————————————      83

3.3.1    Research Design ————————————————–83

3.3.2    Population of the Study —————————————————–    84

3.3.3    Sample Size Determination ——————————————–     85

3.3.4    Sampling Technique and Sample Size Distribution —————-   86

3.3.5    Sources of Data Collection ——————————————-    88

3.3.6    Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument ——————–  88

3.3.7    Methods of Data Presentation and Analysis ——————  89

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1       Introduction —————————————————————————      90

4.2       Presentation and Analysis of Data —————————————-    92

4.3       Summary of Findings ———————————————————–     218

4.4       Test of Hypotheses —————————————————————     219

4.5       Discussion of Findings ———————————————————–    223

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1       Summary —————————————————————————–      234

5.2       Recommendations ——————————————————–     237

5.3       Conclusion ————————————————————————      240

References ————————————————————————–      243

Appendices ———————————————————————–      273

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1        The EITI Implementation Cycle ———————————   34

Figure 2.2        The EITI Multi-stakeholder Framework and How it Works 36

Figure 2.3        NEITI’s Complementary Government Agencies ————- 60

Figure 3.1        Organogram of NEITI ——————————   80

Figure 4.1        Companies’ Payments in the Oil & Gas Sector by Revenue Types (2007-2014) ——————————————-    94

Figure 4.2        Companies’ Payments in the Oil & Gas Sector by Years(2007-2014) ———————————————–    96

Figure 4.3        PPT Payments in the Oil & Gas Sector by Years (2007-2014) -97

Figure 4.4        Oil Royalty Payments in the Oil & Gas Sector by Years(2007-2014) ———————————————–    97

Figure 4.5        Gas Royalty Payments in the Oil & Gas Sector by Years(2007-2014) ——————-    98

Figure 4.6        Signature Bonus Payments in the Oil & Gas Sector by Years(2007-2014) ———————-    99

Figure 4.7        Gas Flaring Penalty Payments in the Oil & Gas Sector by Years(2007-2014) ——————————————————————    100

Figure 4.8        Concession Rentals Payments in the Oil & Gas Sector by Years (2007-2014) ———————————————————-    100

Figure 4.9        CIT Payments in the Oil & Gas Sector by Years (2007-2014) —101

Figure 4.10      VAT Payments in the Oil & Gas Sector by Years (2007-2014) — 102

Figure 4.11      Other Payments in the Oil & Gas Sector by Years (2007-2014) 103

Figure 4.12      Oil and Gas sector revenue receipts of Government(2007 – 2014) ———————————-    106

Figure 4.13      Aggregate of Oil and Gas Revenue Receipts of Government by Percentages (2007 – 2014) ——————————————————-   107

Figure 4.14      Aggregate of Oil and Gas Revenue Receipts of Government by Years (2007 – 2014) ———————————–    108

Figure 4.15     Aggregate Oil & Gas Sector Revenue Disclosure by Government by Years (2007 – 2014) ————————————–    116

Figure 4.16      Revenue Disclosure by Government (Federation Account versus Other Financial Flows, 2007 – 2014) ——————–   117

Figure 4.17      Aggregate of Financial Flows from the Oil and Gas Sector(2007 – 2014) ——————————————–     118

Figure 4.18      Percentage Contributions of Revenue Heads to Total Oil and Gas Revenue (2007 – 2014) ———————————————–   120

Figure 4.19      Comparison of Cumulative Financial Flows (2007 – 2014)[Initial Templates] ——————————————————-     129

Figure 4.20      Comparison of Net Differences in Financial Flows (2007 – 2014) [Initial Templates] —————————————————     130

Figure 4.21      Comparison of Physical Flows by Years [Crude Oil Production Volumes] (2007 – 2014) ——————————————-     132

Figure 4.22      Aggregate of Physical Flows by Years [Crude Oil Production Volumes] (2007 – 2014) ——————————————     133

Figure 4.23      Comparison of Variances in Physical Flows[Crude Oil Production Volumes] (2007 – 2014) ———————————  134

Figure 4.24      Comparison of Physical Flows by Years [Crude Oil Lifting Volumes] (2007 – 2014) ————————————————–     137

Figure 4.25                  Aggregate of Physical Flows [Crude Oil Lifting Volumes] (2007 – 2014) ————————————————–     138

Figure 4.28      Aggregate of Federation Revenue by Revenue Heads (Percentages) ——————————————————————-     141

Figure 4.29      Federation Revenue by Years ————————————   142

Figure 4.30      Aggregate of Federation Revenue by Years ———  143

Figure 4.31         Federation Revenue Vertical Sharing Model ———-144

Figure 4.32      Disbursement of Mineral Revenue by Years (2007 – 2011) 146

Figure 4.33      Aggregate Disbursement of Mineral Revenue (2007 – 2011) -147

Figure 4.34      Disbursement of Non Mineral Revenue by Years (2007 – 2011) —————————————————-     148

Figure 4.35      Aggregate Disbursement of Non Mineral Revenue (2007 – 2011) ———————————————————–     149

Figure 4.36      Disbursement of VAT by Years (2007 – 2011) ———-  151

Figure 4.37      Aggregate Disbursement of VAT (2007 – 2011) ———-  152

Figure 4.38      Comparison of Financial Flows Reconciliation (2007 – 2014) [Adjusted Figures] ———————————————–     164

Figure 4.39      Comparison of Net Differences in Financial Flows Reconciliation (2007 – 2014) [Adjusted Figures] —————————-    165

Figure 4.40      Contribution of Oil and Gas to the Federation Account

(2000 – 2015) ————————————————————————-     181

Figure 4.41      Contribution of Oil and Gas to the Federation Account by Percentage(2004 – 2015) —————————————————–     182

Figure 4.42      Funds Recovered by NEITI —————————   183

Figure 4.43      Funding Available for NEITI Operations (2013) ———–  188

Figure 4.44      Funding Available for NEITI Operations (2007 – 2015)—– 189

Figure 4.45      Government Revenue Structure (1960 – 2015) ———-199

Figure 4.46      Contribution of Oil and Non Oil Revenue to the Federation Account (2007 – 2015) —————————————————–    201

Figure 4.47      Oil Revenue as a Percentage of Total Government Revenue(2007 – 2015) ——————————————————–     201

Figure 4.48      Oil and Non Oil Revenue as Percentage of GDP(2007 – 2015) —————–    202

Figure 4.49      Oil Export as a Percentage of Total Government Export(2007 – 2015) ————-203

Figure 4.50      External Debt Profile (1960 – 2015) —————————–   205

Figure 4.51      Nigeria EITI Validation Score Card (2015) ————- 212

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1         Population of the Study ————————————  85

Table 3.2         Sample Size Distribution ————————————–   87

Table 3.3         Sample Size Distribution (NEITI) ————————————-   88

Table 4.1         NEITI and Revenue Remittances by Oil and Gas Companies to Government ————————    92

Table 4.2         NEITI and Data / Information Management of Oil and Gas Revenue Receipts by Government Agencies ——————– 104

Table 4.3         Shortfall in Remittance to Federation Account from Domestic Crude Proceeds ——————————————————-  109

Table 4.4         NEITI and Revenue Receipt Disclosure by Government Agencies ———————————————–    110

Table 4.5         Oil & Gas Sector Revenue Disclosure by Government (Sales of Crude Oil and Gas, 2007 – 2014) ———————– 111

Table 4.6         Oil & Gas Sector Revenue Disclosure by Government (Specific Financial Flows, 2007 – 2014) —————————-            112

Table 4.7         Oil & Gas Sector Revenue Disclosure by Government (Non Specific Financial Flows, 2007 – 2014) ————————————- 113

Table 4.8         Oil & Gas Sector Revenue Disclosure by Government (Other Financial Flows to Federal, States/ Local Governments & Government Entities, 2007 – 2014) —————————————————–   114

Table 4.9         Oil & Gas Sector Revenue Disclosure by Government (Aggregate Financial Flows, 2007 – 2014) —————————————-  115

Table 4.10      NEITI and the Financial, Physical, Process and Fiscal Allocation/ Statutory Disbursement (FASD) Audits (2007 – 2015) ——–121

Table 4.11       Comparison of Financial Flows (2007) —————– 122

Table 4.12       Comparison of Financial Flows (2008) —————— 123

Table 4.13       Comparison of Financial Flows (2009) ——————— 124

Table 4.14       Comparison of Financial Flows (2010) ————————- 124

Table 4.15       Comparison of Financial Flows (2011) ——————– 125

Table 4.16       Comparison of Financial Flows (2012) —————— 126

Table 4.17       Comparison of Financial Flows (2013) ————- 127

Table 4.18       Comparison of Financial Flows (2014) ———— 128

Table 4.19       Comparison of Physical Flows (Crude Oil Production Volumes, 2007 – 2014) ————————————————–   130

Table 4.20       Comparison of Physical Flows (Crude Oil Lifting Volumes, 2007 – 2014) ———————————–   135

Table 4.21       Federation Revenue (2007 – 2011) ————————————————– 140

Table 4.22       Federation Revenue Vertical Sharing Formula —— 144

Table 4.23       Disbursement of Mineral Revenue (2007 – 2011) —–   145

Table 4.24       Disbursement of Non Mineral Revenue (2007 – 2011) —–147

Table 4.25       Disbursement of VAT (2007 – 2011) ————-            150

Table 4.26       Publication of NEITI Audits ——————–            154

Table 4.27       NEITI and the Reconciliation/ Remediation of Audit Findings 155

Table 4.28       Reconciliation of Financial Flows (2007) —————- 156

Table 4.29       Reconciliation of Financial Flows (2008) ————— 157

Table 4.30       Reconciliation of Financial Flows (2009) ——————- 158

Table 4.31       Reconciliation of Financial Flows (2010) —————– 159

Table 4.32       Reconciliation of Financial Flows (2011) ———————- 160

Table 4.33       Reconciliation of Financial Flows (2012) —————- 161

Table 4.34       Reconciliation of Financial Flows (2013) —————— 162

Table 4.35       Reconciliation of Financial Flows (2014) ———————– 163

Table 4.36       NEITI Audits and Natural Resource Revenue Governance in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Sector ———————————- 167

Table 4.37       NEITI and Communication Linkages with Complementary Government Agencies ————————————-  172

Table 4.38       NEITI and Collaboration with Complementary Government Agencies ——————————————————-    173

Table 4.39       NEITI and Collaboration with Civil Society ————– 175

Table 4.40       NEITI and Accountability of Government on Public Spending —    179

Table 4.41       Challenges Affecting NEITI in Implementing EITI Standards ——–185

Table 4.42       Challenges Affecting Complementary Agencies in Supporting NEITI ——————————————————-   193

Table 4.43       PPT Fiscal Value Validation ————————  194

Table 4.44       Revalidation of the Royalty Value on Chargeable Oil —196

Table 4.45       NEITI and the Resource Curse Challenge in Nigeria — 198

Table 4.46       NEITI and Strategies Adopted to Foster Natural Resource Revenue Governance in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Sector —-            206

Table 4.47      NEITI and Mechanisms for Improved Natural Resource Revenue Governance in the Nigerian Oil and Gas Sector ————– 224

Table 4.48       One Sample Statistics (NEITI and Transparency)——219

Table 4.49       One Sample Test (NEITI and Transparency) ——                 219

Table 4.50       One Sample Statistics (NEITI and Accountability) ——–220

Table 4.51       One Sample Test (NEITI and Accountability) ——-        220

Table 4.52       One Sample Statistics (Conflicting MSI and NRRG) ———–220

Table 4.53       One Sample Test (Conflicting MSI and NRRG) ——–221

Table 4.54       One Sample Statistics (Weak CS and NRRG) ——— 221

Table 4.55       One Sample Test (Weak CS and NRRG) ——221

Table 4.56       One Sample Statistics (IMS Synergy and NRRG) ———– 222

Table 4.57       One Sample Test (IMS Synergy and NRRG) ———222

Table 4.58       One Sample Statistics (CS Empowerment and NRRG) —222

Table 4.59       One Sample Test (CS Empowerment and NRRG) ——–223

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix I                  Interview Guide Questions ——————-            273

Appendix II               NEITI ACT, 2007 ————————————- 275

Appendix III               NEITI ACT, 2007 [Summary] ——————–            290

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

S/NABBREVIATIONS/ ACRONYMSMEANINGS
1AGFAttorney General of the Federation
2ANEEJAfrica Network for Environment and Economic Justice
3APPAdjusted Posted Price
4AUAfrican Union
5BblsBarrel(s)
6BEITIBayelsa Expenditure and Income Transparency Initiative
7BLBill of Lading
8BMPIUBudget Monitoring and Price Intelligence Unit
9BOFIABank and Other Financial Institutions Act
10CBNCentral Bank of Nigeria
11CBOsCommunity Based Organizations
12CFRNConstitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria
13CISLACCivil Society Legislative Advocacy Center
14CORCCrude Oil Reconciliation Commission
15CPPCCentre for Public Private Cooperation
16CRFConsolidated Revenue Fund
17CSOsCivil Society Organizations
18CSRCorporate Social Responsibility
19CSSCCivil Society Steering Committee
20DFIDDepartment for International Development
21DPRDepartment of Petroleum Resources
22E & PExploration and Production
23ECAExcess Crude Account
24EDTEducation Tax
25EFCCEconomic and Financial Crimes Commission
26EGPSExtractive Global Programmatic Support
27EIExtractive Industry
28EIAEnvironmental impact Assessment
29EIRExtractive Industries Review
30EITIExtractive Industries Transparency Initiative
31ESIDEffective States and Inclusive Development
32EUEuropean Union
33FAACFederation Accounts Allocation Committee
34FASDFiscal Allocation and Statutory Disbursement
35FBOsFaith Based Organizations
36FCTFederal Capital Territory
37FDIForeign Direct Investment
38FIRSFederal Inland Revenue Service
39FPOsFederal Pay Offices
40G20Group of 20
41G8Group of 8
42GDPGross Domestic Product
43GNPGross National Product
44GRPDGreenfield Refinery Projects Division
45GWGlobal Witness
46HDIHuman Development Index
47HPIHuman Poverty Index
48HYSONHydrocarbon Services Nigeria Limited
49IAIndependent Auditors
50IBLFInternational Business Leaders Forum
51ICMMInternational Council on Mining and Metals
52ICPCIndependent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission
53ICTInformation and Communication Technology
54IFCInternational Finance Corporation
55IIDEAInternational Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance
56IMFInternational Monetary Fund
57IMTTInter Ministerial Task Team
58IOCsInternational Oil Companies
59JVsJoint Ventures
60KPMGKlynveld Peat Marwick Goerdeler
61KRPCKaduna Refining and Petro Chemical Company Limited
62LDCsLess Developed Countries
63LGsLocal Government (s)
64LOCsLocal Oil Companies
65MCAModified Carry Agreement
66MDAsMinistries, Departments and Agencies
67MDTFMulti Donor Trust Fund
68MNCsMultinational Corporations
69MoUMemorandum of Understanding
70MRMineral Revenue
71MSGMulti Stakeholder Group
72MSIMulti Stakeholder Initiative
73NAOCNigerian Agip Oil Company
74NAPIMSNational Petroleum Investment Management Service
75NBSNational Bureau of Statistics
76NCDMBNigerian Content Development and Monitoring Board
77NCSNigeria Customs Service
78NDDCNiger Delta Development Commission
79NEITINigeria Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative
80NEPANational Electricity Power Authority
81NESSNigerian Export Supervision Scheme
82NETCONational Engineering and Technical Company Limited
83NGCNigerian Gas Company
84NGOsNon Governmental Organizations
85NIMASANigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency
86NIWANational Inland Waterways Authority
87NLNGNigerian Liquefied Natural Gas
88NMRNon Mineral revenue
89NNOCNigerian National Oil Corporation
90NNPCNigerian National Petroleum Corporation
91NOCsNational Oil Companies
92NPDCNigerian Petroleum Development Company
93NRGINatural Resource Governance Institute
94NSWGNational Stakeholders Working Group
95OAGFOffice of the Accountant General of the Federation
96OECDOrganization for Economic Cooperation and Development
97OPECOrganization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
98OSPOfficial Selling Price
99PAYEPay As You Earn
100PHCNPower Holding Company of Nigeria
101PHRCPort Harcourt Refining Company
102PITDPetroleum and International Tax Department
103PPPosted Price
104PPMCProducts and Pipelines Marketing Company
105PPPPurchasing Power Parity
106PPPRAPetroleum Product Pricing Regulatory Agency
107PPSRCPetroleum Products Sales Reconciliation Committee
108PPTPetroleum Profit Tax
109PPTAPetroleum Profit Tax Act
110PRSPsPoverty Reduction Strategy Papers
111PSCsProduction Sharing Contracts
112PTDFPetroleum Technology Development Fund
113PWYPPublish What You Pay
114REIResource Endowment Initiative
115RMAFCRevenue Mobilization Allocation and Fiscal Commission
116RPRealizable Prices
117RSCsRisk Sharing Contracts
118SCsService Contracts
119SDSNSustainable Development Solutions Network
120SRSole Risk
121SSASub Saharan Africa
122TAIsTransparency and Accountability Initiatives
123TcfTrillion Cubic Feet
124TFPTotal Factor Productivity
125TGEXPTotal Government Export
126U.SUnited States
127UKDFIDUnited Kingdom Department for International Development
128UNUnited Nations
129VATValue Added Tax
130WBWorld Bank
131WHTWithholding Tax
132WRPCWarri Refining and Petro Chemical Company Limited
133WW IISecond World War / World War Two
135wwwWorld Wide Web

ABSTRACT

The impact of natural resources on development has been a controversial issue for decades. Natural resources were considered to offer developing countries great opportunities to boost economic growth and development. However, natural resource revenues, for most LDCs, have shown to generate adverse economic and political outcomes. The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) was launched in 2003 as an international policy and institutional intervention aimed at mitigating the negative effects of resource abundance by promoting the transparency of resource revenues and accountability of the governments in resource rich states. Nigeria signed on to the global EITI process, following an official launch in 2004, which led to the establishment of the Nigeria Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (NEITI). The objective of the study was to assess the impact of NEITI on natural resource revenue governance in the Nigerian oil and gas sector from 2007 to 2015. The Institutional theory was adopted as the theoretical underpinning of the study. Survey design was employed as the research methodology. Data analysis was done by use of descriptive analysis. The data analyzed revealed that NEITI has enhanced natural resource revenue transparency but has not enhanced natural resource revenue accountability in the Nigerian oil and gas sector. It established that internal constraints such as inadequate funding, poor automation processes and limitations in the NEITI Act, and external constraints such as weak civil society, conflicting multi stakeholder interest, and lack of political will by government were factors that acted as impediments to NEITI’s role in enhancing natural resource revenue governance in the Nigerian oil and gas sector. The data analysis also revealed that NEITI’s strategies directed at effective audits, dissemination of information on NEITI processes, and increased collaboration with international organizations have not translated to improved natural resource revenue governance in the Nigerian oil and gas sector. The study recommended that the review of the NEITI Act, improved synergy between stakeholders in the NEITI framework, rapid automation of the oil and gas sector, timely publication of NEITI audits and vigorous civil society empowerment are mechanisms to be adopted by NEITI to improve natural resource revenue governance in the Nigerian oil and gas sector.

Citation - Reference

All Project Materials Inc. (2020). NIGERIA EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES TRANSPARENCY INITIATIVE (NEITI) AND NATURAL RESOURCE REVENUE GOVERNANCE IN THE NIGERIAN OIL AND GAS SECTOR (2007 – 2015). Available at: https://researchcub.info/department/paper-8309.html. [Accessed: ].

NIGERIA EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES TRANSPARENCY INITIATIVE (NEITI) AND NATURAL RESOURCE REVENUE GOVERNANCE IN THE NIGERIAN OIL AND GAS SECTOR (2007 – 2015)


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