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TRAVEL LIFESTYLE AND OUTBOUND TOURISM INTENTION IN NIGERIA



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TRAVEL LIFESTYLE AND OUTBOUND TOURISM INTENTION IN NIGERIA



ABSTRACT

        Studies of past literature on tourists’ holiday, inbound and outbound, intention decision paves the way to explore the Nigerian travel lifestyles and outbound tourism intentions. Although most of the findings are helpful to understand the travellers market, the related study of Nigerian travellers is limited. This study intends to fill the gap by examining the relationship between travel lifestyles and outbound tourism intentions of Nigeria. Hence, this will be significantly helpful for marketers in developing positioning strategies in order to provide a total tourism experience for the potential travellers. While studies have examined people''s understanding of climate change and its relationship to tourism, these focus largely on developed country populations. Much future tourism growth will come from developing countries following economic development; often countries where climate change will be strongly felt. Do tourists from developing countries have the same knowledge gaps about travel, tourism, and climate change as in the developed world? Will behavioral change policies be successful in encouraging more environmentally friendly approaches to climate change and tourism in developing countries? This research presents findings from 20 in-depth interviews with active Nigerian tourists, analyzing their understanding of climate change, the links known, or not, between their travel and climate change, and their willingness to change their tourism patterns. Understanding of climate change was limited and there was conceptual confusion. Participants did not view their own travel as a cause of climate change and many were embedded in air travel practice. Participants were unwilling to change their tourism patterns to reduce their contribution to climate change. Significant structural barriers limit low carbon tourism travel in Nigeria (and other developing countries), including reliability, availability safety, and speed. Behavioral change will be difficult to achieve.

 

 


CHAPTER ONE

1.0   Introduction

1.1   Background of Study

        Nigeria in this era are raised in an environment that offers a wide and increasing range of travel opportunities. As on 2013, approximately half of the holiday makers’ population in Malaysia consisted of young people (Euromonitor International, 2014). Due to low-cost carriers become the common travelling mode of transportation, the ease of information searching and tourism products purchasing via World Wide Web, travelling is at its most accessible ever and thus, the increasing freedom to travel. So, it is a fact that today’s Nigerians’ attitudes towards holiday making are very positive. Although young travellers have a strong desire to travel, the cost, affordability and accessibility will need to be assessed to turn potential into actual demand (Glover, 2010). Therefore, further study needs to be carried out to investigate their travel behaviour as suggested by Tsiotsu and Ratten (2010). Moreover, Aziz and Ariffin (2009) suggested that behaviouristic study is required to understand the Nigerian travellers market as pleasure travel is expanding in Nigeria. They also remark that it is crucial to investigate how people make their travel decisions and what they enjoy during travelling.

In brief, travelling has become easier and more affordable than it was before. These changes are contributing to the age of travellers getting younger. Hence, it is not deniable that young travellers are an increasingly important segment in both tourism businesses and studies. Despite an increasing interest in the market size of young travellers, economic potential and their desire to travel, relatively little is known about their travel lifestyles and intentions to overseas travel. Therefore, this study aims to provide insights of Nigerian’ travel lifestyles and travel intentions.

 

 

1.2   Statement of Problem

        There are so many outbound tourism in Nigeria and factors hindering the successful implement of Nigerian intention to tourism, the rate of inbound tourism seems to be significant low to the outbound tourism in Nigeria which signify that the Nigerian travel lifestyle with the hospitality industry is far lacking from the standard ought to be. The following reasons are the core issue seen by the researcher.

1.  Nigerians tends to visit other country for tourism then other nations visits ours.

2.  The government seems to do nothing concerning the inbound and outbound of our tourist sector.

3.  To explicitly, review the tourism intention of Nigerian, because from the trends of Nigerian outbound relatively to the inbounds tell me that there is no intention for tourism in Nigeria.

 

1.3   Objectives of the Study

        As mentioned in the research problem, there are several studies (Cai, L., 2002; Cha et al., 1995; Hanqin and Lam, 1999, Jamrozy and Uysal, 1994; Josiam et al., 1999; Kozak 2002; Pyo et al, 1989; Smeaton et al., 1998; Yuan and McDonald, 1990) which have examined the motivations of outbound tourism in several countries, but there has been a lack of attention paid by researchers to the study of the motivation of Nigerian outbound tourism. Furthermore, there has also been a lack of attention given by researchers to the study of travel lifestyle of outbound tourism. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to explore the motivations (explicit and implicit) of Nigerian outbound tourism.

The project work aims at determining and highlighting the trends on Nigerian outbound tourism and travel lifestyle. The study will also provide exploration and reason for Nigerian tourism intention.

This broad aim consists of the following subsidiary objectives:

 

1.  To develop the Nigerian’ profile covering personal characteristics, travel lifestyles and their intentions to overseas travel.

2.  To assess the ''push'' and ''pull'' motivations (explicit and implicit) that drive Nigerian tourists to go abroad.

3.  To examine the nature of the relationship between push and pull factors (explicit and implicit) in travel lifestyle.

4.  To examine the differences in motivations of tourists according to their demographic variables (age, gender, marital status, income and education).

5.  To examine the relationship between Nigerian culture and tourism motivations (explicit and implicit) and its intention (Tourism).

6.  To examine the relationship between Nigerians travel lifestyles and travel intentions for outbound tourism.

7.  Lastly, to test the influence of tourists'' motives (explicit and implicit) on destination selection.

To achieve these aims and objectives, a quantitative approach will be used.

 

1.4   Research Question

The research work is guided with same research question, which will be administered and distributed among the researchers area of study which are the respondents to this research work and these comprise the travelers and the management. Sample research question are:

1.  What are the intention for you traveling out to overseas travel?

2.  What is the ''push'' and ''pull'' motivations (explicit and implicit) that drive Nigerian tourists to go abroad?

3.  What is the nature of the relationship between push and pull factors (explicit and implicit) in travel lifestyle?

4.  What is the differences in motivations of tourists according to their demographic variables (age, gender, marital status, income and education)?

5.  What is the relationship between Nigerian culture and tourism motivations (explicit and implicit) and its intention (Tourism)?

6.  What relationship is between Nigerians travel lifestyles and travel intentions for outbound tourism.

7.  What is the influence of your motives (explicit and implicit) on destination selection?

 

 

1.5   Statement of Hypothesis

The researcher formed some of the hypothesis which will be tested to support this study. The hypothesis will be tested at 0.05 level of significance using the t-test method and correlation analysis.

The research hypothesis are as follows.

1.  H1: There is no significance relationship between travel life style and the out bound tourism in Nigeria.

H0: There is no significance relationship between travel life style and the out bound tourism in Nigeria.

 

2.  H1: Nigerian outbound tourism intention has potential positive effect to travel lifestyle to tourism

H0: Nigerian outbound tourism intention has potential positive effect to travel lifestyle to tourism

 

 

1.6   Signification of the Study

        This research aims to investigate the travel lifestyle of Nigerian outbound tourism. The Nigerian outbound tourism market is recognised as one of the biggest in the world in terms of the amount of Nigeria expenditures in outbound tourism (Hashim, 1997). However, little research has been conducted on the travel lifestyle behind Nigerian outbound tourism, especially the implicit motives. The researcher therefore aims to contribute in this area.

Firstly, it contributes to the literature of tourism motivations of outbound tourism, using push and pull factors, by investigating the unique context of Nigeria.

Previous studies have investigated the tourism motivations of outbound tourism by Christians (e.g. Cha et al., 1995; Hanqin and Lam, 1999; Jamrozy and Uysal, 1994; Jang and Cai, 2002; Josiam et al., 1999, Kozak, 2002, Yuan and McDonald (1990). There has been a lack of attention among the researchers to investigate the motivations of outbound tourists (especially implicit motives) in the country.

        Secondly, one novelty for this research relates to its study of the implicit motivations for Nigerian outbound tourism. Implicit here relates to sex, alcohol and other motivations for tourism. Previous studies have customarily focused on explicit motivations as the primary motives for tourism (Baloglu and Uyssal, 1996; Bogari et al., 2003; Cha et al., 1995; Jang and Cai, 2002; Josiam et al., 1999; Kim and Lee, 2002; Kozak 2002; Pyo et al, 1989; Smeaton et al, 1998; Turnbull and Usal, 1995; Usal and Jurowshi, 1994; Yoon and Uysal, 2005;You et al., 2002; Yuan and McDonald, 1990). However, explicit motivations are not necessarily the only motives that drive the tourist to travel. Possibly there are other motives (implicit) that tourist does not want to reveal for various reasons. These reasons might be cultural, traditional or personal.

 

 

1.7   Justification of the Study

I want to justify this research work based on the objectives and the significance of this research work, what is within its coverage, this research work is with no doubt necessary to be carried out. Because if done will greatly highlight the importance creating a sustainable tourism, intension that will contribute to the development of the nation and maintain an average inbound and outbound travel lifestyle.

 

1.8   Scope of the Study

This research work will be covering Nigerian traveling lifestyle and outbound tourism in Nigerian, also, the tourism intention in Nigeria. Well due to the large number of travelers, the researcher will use the result and analysis gotten from the Nnamdi international airport Abuja for this research work.

 

1.9   Limitation of the Study

        One of the limitation to this research work is the cost of performing/researching this project work, the researcher encountered a lot of challenges as well as opposition which ranges from financial constraints, time factor. This factors in their own ways, slowed down the speedy progress of this work that resulted to the researcher not being able to finish the research work on time as is required

Also,  within the area of study the researcher was faced with some other forms of constrains that contributed to the limitation of this researcher work, like accessibility to data, information and facts concerning the present study due to some reasons or the other, some not willing to give out information that it is to be within the workers.

 

1.10 Conceptual Framework

Citation - Reference

All Project Materials Inc. (2020). TRAVEL LIFESTYLE AND OUTBOUND TOURISM INTENTION IN NIGERIA. Available at: https://researchcub.info/department/paper-6723.html. [Accessed: ].

TRAVEL LIFESTYLE AND OUTBOUND TOURISM INTENTION IN NIGERIA


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Studies of past literature on tourists’ holiday, inbound and outbound, intention decision paves the way to explore the Nigerian travel lifestyles and outbound tourism intentions. Although most of the findings are helpful to understand the travellers market, the related study of Nigerian travellers is limited. This study intends to fill the gap by examining the relationship between travel lifestyles and outbound tourism intentions of Nigeria. Hence, this will be significantly helpful for marketers in developing positioning strategies in order to provide a total tourism experience for the potential travellers. While studies have examined people''s understanding of climate change and its relationship to tourism, these focus largely on developed country populations. Much future tourism growth will come from developing countries following economic development; often countries where climate change will be strongly felt. Do tourists from developing countries have the same knowledge gaps about travel, tourism, and climate change as in the developed world? Will behavioral change policies be successful in encouraging more environmentally friendly approaches to climate change and tourism in developing countries? This research presents findings from 20 in-depth interviews with active Nigerian tourists, analyzing their understanding of climate change, the links known, or not, between their travel and climate change, and their willingness to change their tourism patterns. Understanding of .. Click here for more

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